Friday, May 22, 2020

Analysis Of The Book Brave New World By Aldous Huxley...

Title: Brave New World Author: Aldous Huxley Main Characters: Bernard, John, Lenina, Linda Synopsis: The book begins in a human reproduction facility where they are basically engineering and developing human beings. It explains that once a child is born they are trained to conform to society. For example, babies were placed on an electric floor in front of books and flowers, and to train them they were electrocuted until they learned to dislike books and nature. This was done to ensure that the engineered humans did not think on their own or come up with their own ideas, and also so that they would not be provoked by nature to leave their work. The story focuses in on Bernard Marx, who works in a reproduction facility. Bernard is different than the rest of society and pursues a woman named Lenina. One day, he asks his boss if he can go to a savage reservation. Bernard’s boss gets angry at his behavior and tells Bernard a story of when he went to a savage reservation. He tells Bernard that he went with a woman and that she was lost in a storm and has not been seen s ince. Bernard’s boss threatens to relocate him to Iceland if his behavior persists. Bernard and Lenina go to the savage reservation, and he receives news that he may actually be relocated and is no longer proud of his rebellious behavior. At the camp they observe someone standing quietly as he is whipped. After the ritual the savage comes up to them and Bernard realizes he is white and can speak English, unlikeShow MoreRelatedA Brave New World vs. 1984991 Words   |  4 PagesA Brave New World vs. 1984 There are many similarities and differences between Aldous Huxleys A Brave New World and George Orwells 1984. With my analysis of both novels, I have come to the conclusion that they are not as alike as you would believe. A Brave New World is a novel about the struggle of John, ‘the savage, who rejects the society of the Brave New World when and discovers that he could never be truly happy there. 1984 is a novel about Winston, who finds forbidden loveRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1756 Words   |  7 PagesAldous Huxley is best known for his novel Brave New World, which depicts a post-industrial revolution utopia. Huxley greatly feared the ramifications to an industrialized world run by consumer capitalism, which is displayed in Brave New World. The government within the novel focuses solely on the bettering of technology and not scientific exploration and experimentation. The society’s values lie in instant gratification and constant happiness. The utopia is maintained through the means of drugs,Read MoreEssay about Human Genetic Engineering is Bunk996 Words   |  4 Pages Imagine a world in which everyone is identical and reared to process, act and perceive every little thing the same way. If someone chooses to stand out, then the entire society becomes unstable, unsafe and brings unwanted fears that the civilization will decay into rubbles. The longevity and quality of life primarily depend on what the controller feels like creating, either an elite or a second-rate. The life of one human being is dictated and put in the control of one person’s hands that gets toRead MoreGeorge Orwell s Brave New World1601 Words   |  7 Pagesattempted to predict what the future holds for our society. If one was to narrow their focus on the past century they would see the works and predictions of Aldous Huxley and George Orwell. Both Huxley and Orwell, as one could infer, composed novels that describe future societies and thei r inner workings. Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World, where members of society originate from a lab and who’s lives are pre-determined by the controllers. The controllers of Huxley’s futuristic society’s fundamentalRead MoreThe Absence of Morals in Brave New World Essay1814 Words   |  8 Pagesstate. Huxley, in his novel Brave New World, argues that this is not the case. Through the creation of a type of scientifically led world order, the society has destroyed the one thing that people cherish most, their individualism (Brander 71). They are no longer individuals; they are consumers assimilated into an overall society by the power of genetics. However, that is not all. Baker contends that â€Å"Huxley’s greatest fear was the potential misuse of genetic engineering, but Brave New World also reflectsRead MoreBrave New World, Representative Of A Utopia Or A Dystopia?2190 Words   |  9 PagesAccording to critics, is â€Å"Brave New World â€Å"r epresentative of a utopia or a dystopia? Throughout history, many have wondered about what the future may hold for mankind. Will there be war or peace, success or failure, unity or disunity? One of the most asked questions, society can ever form a utopia. There are countless theories and opinions as to what will truly become of this planet in the years to come. As a result, there has been a tremendous amount of works dedicated to the concept of a futureRead MoreA Comparison of Utopian Societies885 Words   |  4 PagesEver since the worlds first nation state was created, the number one goal of its citizens has been to create the â€Å"perfect† society. To a majority of people in the novels Brave New World (c.1932) by Aldous Huxley and The Giver (c.1993) by Lois Lowry, a utopia and â€Å"perfect† society has been accomplished. But at a second glance, the world that Huxley creates and Lowry’s community are actually totalitarian dystopias with many secrets. The similarities of both novels are evident and some readers may makeRead MoreBrave New World By Aldous Huxley2205 Words   |  9 PagesThroughout history, regimes around the world have orchestrated their own social system, influenced by political and economic ideologies. Humans have been victims of corrupt government systems that set a large gap between two distinct social classes: The Proletariat and Bourgeoisie. This system is mostly seen in places where one or many have an excessive amount of power (tyranny). Whether it’s an overpowered ruler who puts himself far beyond everyone else in terms of social class, or a society whereRead MoreEssay No Control of Happiness in Brave New World1601 Words   |  7 Pages Brave New World, acknowledges government control which results in the failure of a society. It is a world created where everything is under control, being observed, and synthetic. The society was manufactured in a test tube therefore, it was factory made. The people were born and developed in the test tubes, so their human nature became adapted so an individual cannot identify or approach it. Every little detail of a persons life is prearranged. These peoples lives revolve around their communityRead MoreManipulated Free Will Essay1372 Words   |  6 PagesIn both Brave New World and The Truman Show it shows the negative effects this type of society can cause. In both the novel and film it shows how drug or substance abuse must be enforced to pacify and conditioning are used a means to control the subject or subjects but only lead to physical or mental deterioration of the subjects. Before I began to break down the points I will give you a brief overview of both the novel Brave New World and the film The Truman Show below. Brave New World This

Monday, May 18, 2020

Time Warner Cable / CBS Crisis Management Free Essay Example, 5000 words

As a result, dispute between two parties had started. Second Component of Crisis: CBS Broadcasting wanted to retain digital rights of its content and it has planned to sell the content to web-based distributors such as Amazon, Netflix and others. Passing the digital rights of content to web-based distributors would decrease scope for Time Warner Inc to earn revenue by selling media content. Therefore, retention of digital rights of CBS Broadcasting would negatively impact interest of Time Warner Inc. As a result, Time Warner Inc was not ready to accept the decision of CBS Broadcasting to retain the digital rights (Carter, â€Å"CBS Returns, Triumphant, to Cable Box†). Review of the literature regarding crisis management will develop theoretical background of the discussion regarding crisis situation caused by dispute between CBS Broadcasting and Time Warner Inc. Crisis and Crisis Management Crisis is being conceptualized as uncommon event characterized with high level of vagueness, uncertainty and unknown causes. Severity of crisis situation is measured in terms of its ability create threat for survival for respective company or individuals (Sayegh, Anthony and Perrewe 179-199). We will write a custom essay sample on Time Warner Cable / CBS Crisis Management or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now Probability of occurrence of crisis is perceived as low and due to vagueness surrounding crisis situation, companies face difficulties to select right crisis management (CM) mechanism. In simple words, CM can be defined as organizational procedures blended with leadership style to counter balance negative impacts of crisis situation (Regester and Larkin 41-73). CM mechanisms include variety of processes such as, 1- internal as well external communication with stakeholders (internal as well as external) and communicate the actions being taken by the company to address the crisis, 2- taking legal support to address the crisis situation, 3- conducting market research to get feedback from external stakeholders regarding process of addressing the crisis situation and 4- integrating transformational leadership styles and management actions to direct organizational actions to address crisis situation (Drew and Kendrick 19). According to Regester and Larkin (41-73), organizations with higher crisis proneness (CP) can handle crisis situation in better manner in comparison to unprepared organizations. Sheaffer and Mano-Negrin (575) defined crisis proneness (CP) as, â€Å"[.. .] a state of corporate readiness to foresee and effectively address internal or exogenous adversary circumstances with the potential to inflict a multidimensional crisis, by consciously and proactively preparing for its inevitable occurrence. † Considering conflict between Time Warner Inc and CBS Broadcasting, it can be said that both the companies need to have CP to address the crisis situation.

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Wealth Inequality in the Bible - 3308 Words

The Correlation Between Economic and Moral Disparity â€Å"What good will it be for a man if he gains the whole world, yet forfeits his soul? Or what can a man give in exchange for his soul† (NIV Matthew 16:26). The Bible does not directly condemn monetary prosperity. However, Jesus warns that the love of riches leads men further from the Kingdom of God and into a false idolization of wealth. This monetary worship pulls man away from God, and tears the seams of brotherhood that bond men together. Today, this bond between men has never been so frail and apathy has never been so vigorous. Millions of people die every year from preventable causes, including hunger, disease and countless other conditions, all derived from poverty. At†¦show more content†¦Professor of ecology and evolution, Peter Turchin, describes the condition of the U.S. with a few statistics, â€Å"Today, the top one per cent of incomes in the United States accounts for one fifth of US earnings. The top one per cent of fortunes holds two-fifths of the t otal wealth. Just one rich family, the six heirs of the brothers Sam and James Walton, founders of Walmart, are worth more than the bottom 40 per cent of the American population combined.† (Cite) Turchin also analyzes economic inequality within the United States over the past 200 years. Within the time frame of the 1800s to the 1920s, economic inequality â€Å"increased more than a hundredfold.† Then from this point until the 1980s there was a period known as the â€Å"Great Compression† where economic equality grew. Over the past 40 years the trend has turned back towards inequality, and we find ourselves reentering an elitist, discriminatory system. Using historical economic patterns, the U.S. appears to have entered a new era of stagnation for economic equality. While theories such as â€Å"trickle down economics† support the wealthy creating more wealth for the lower income levels there is more evidence elaborating the benefits of living in a country with higher economic equality. When there are higher levels of economic equality countries enjoy more political stability, better health conditions, and a better outlook on the nation and jointly, life. The following graphic and itsShow MoreRelatedIndia s Indian Corruption Crisis1643 Words   |  7 Pagesinstitutions, the Indian government has become extremely corrupt and this has caused Indians to lose trust in officials, feel unprotected by the authorities, which is causing chaos in politically weaker parts of India. The history of India, Inequalities, poverty, desire for wealth, and desire for power have led to the corruption in India, which is causing chaos in politically unstable parts of the country and causing the ‘Indian Corruption Crisis’. The history of India has lead to India having issues in itsRead MoreThe Bible in The Upside Down Kingdom by Donald B. Kraybill Essay1199 Words   |  5 PagesThe book The Upside Down Kingdom by Donald B. Kraybill does an analysis of the bible in a different approach taken by readers. The main point of the book is to help readers understand Gods kingdom in a world that is turned upside down. Kraybill shows how upside down and radical the kingdom was in the first century Palestine and how it is the same in today’s society. In other words Kraybill illustrated the image that people who are at the top of the pyramids, the wealthy and the powerful, will beRead MoreEssay about Technology and Social Justice663 Words   |  3 PagesExactly how does Dyson answer pessimistic doubts that technological innovations frequently serve to increase social oppression and inequality? What is your assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of Dysons response to that pessimistic perspective? Freeman Dyson answers the pessimistic doubts that technological innovations serve to increase social oppression and inequality by discussing the difference in technology between the rich and the poor. He explains how technology is a contributing factorRead MoreThe Absolute And Relative Income Hypothesis1009 Words   |  5 PagesThe study attempts to test the absolute and relative income hypothesis with an extremely large US sample and to â€Å"examine the role of income inequality as a moderator of the absolute and relative income effects† (Cheung, 2015, p. 333). Income inequality as a moderator refers to the level of income inequality that exists in a given locale and the effects it has on one’s perceived value compared to the value of others. Absolute income refers to a person’s salary, whereas, relative income refers to aRead MoreOverview of Business for the Glory of God Essay examples1313 Words   |  6 Pagescharge of it has been given over to the servant s. Insights like these in the Bible help to prove the fact of personal ownership. The second aspect that the author discussed that I agree with is that of profit. Profit is necessary in the economic market that we have today. When a person makes a product or provides a service they expect that their time and experience is worth something. The author discusses how the Bible speaks on the subject of profit. He also speaks on the parable of the stewardsRead MoreEssay about Private Property1013 Words   |  5 PagesThe ideology behind what private property represents and conveys through the theories of both Locke and Marxs results in contrasting views. Locke heavily stresses the blending of labor and common land to create private property to increase one’s wealth. Liberty and livelihood under Locke’s theory is tied to the ability of an individual to control the use of their private property. Marx’s theory strongly contends that the bourgeoisie has gained control of the profit making private properties leavingRead MoreGender Inequality Essay8 03 Words   |  4 PagesGender inequality or gender stratification is the unequal spreading of society’s wealth, power, and privilege between females and males. Whenever this issue is approached, evidence is provided that majority of women popularity are taken for granted and frowned upon as if women cannot do what men can do. This is proof that the oppressor vs. the oppressed is present throughout history; even in religious communities, some can date back to God’s creation. For example, it is written in the Bible, â€Å"To theRead MoreThe Education System Can Influence Upward Or Downward Social Mobility By Conflict Theory858 Words   |  4 Pagesunderstand the order of capitalism. Just as an employer has to adhere to the manager, students have to adhere to the teacher. An example of conflict theory when dealing with the education system would be social inequality. Social inequality is an integral component of the education system. This inequality is observed in the unequal allocation of funding and resources observed in education systems. In my hometown of Montgomery, Alabama I went to a high school that was in the Montgomery Public School SystemRead MoreEconomists Estimate Wealth And Poverty1736 Words   |  7 PagesFahim Prof, Brian Curtis English Comp 2 April 23, 2016 Wealth and Poverty Economists estimate wealth and poverty in many ways. The most three common measures are income, possessions (accumulated wealth in the form of money, securities, and real estate), and socioeconomic metrics. Actions in the last category go beyond financial data to account for health, food, infant mortality, sanitation, and other phases of human well-being. Usually, wealth and poverty measured regarding income. Information onRead MoreCorrelation Between Religiosity And Inequality3473 Words   |  14 Pagesthe profound correlation between religiosity and attitudes of inequality among undergraduate students that attend North Park University, thus placing strong emphasis on learning how religiously places a role in shaping student s attitudes and perceptions of inequality among our culture and society. While prior research in this academic discipline leads us to believe the ideological notion that religious students believe that inequality is not as prevalent as non-religious students, the hypothesis

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personal Experience Of Science - 2166 Words

Personal Experience Of Science Born as I was into the immediate post-war generation, my thinking on science parallels in many ways the generation as a whole. We came along in the aftermath of the first scientific war – fought between countries with, in many ways, highly-developed technologies, which served to both fuel and end the conflict (Brehm, Kassin, Fein, 1999, cited in Schneider, Grunman Coutts, 2005). But then came the first inklings that there was both more and less to science than shiny new machines, even killing machines. The social experiments of Milgram (1965) and the cold behaviorism of Skinner (Operant Conditioning, 2007) surfaced into the popular consciousness, and arguably fueled the lingering revulsion over the part†¦show more content†¦In some ways it has had its time as a more logically-based discipline, in the rapid post-war rise of psychology and psychologists (Blatt, 1975; Reich, 1981, also cited in Schneider et al.) -- the highest-profiled being perhaps Milgram (ibid.) and Zimbardo (Haney, Banks, and Zimbardo, 1973). In particular, largely laboratory-based social psychologists almost broke away from â€Å"applied† researchers through the immediate post-war period (Reich). They then came came under substantial fire during the 1960s, first for â€Å"inhuman† implications of some of the research, and then for failing to attend to pressing social problems. Science, Psychology And The Role Of Theory Despite this, however, psychology retained the potential to be more of a science, in the driving force of all inquiries and the enabler of critical thinking: the search for new knowledge derived from combination of theory and induction (Allmark, 2003; Gomory; Popper, 1963). Thus the move back towards â€Å"applied social psychology†, with a firmer academic and scientific basis, reflected in the founding of the Journal of Applied Social Psychology in 1971, followed shortly by university-level degree programs. Indeed, Smedslund stressed the vital role of theory – that devoid of strong theory, the temptation is to adopt studies that â€Å"make sense,† based on accepted concepts that are known to be related, but that may actually form part of the sameShow MoreRelatedMedicine As A Human Science Essay1420 Words   |  6 PagesMEDICINE AS A HUMAN SCIENCE 2 Mukherjee (2015) talks about the three laws of medicine however these are his personal laws that may or may not be followed by other health professionals. He explains each law that he had learned through personal experiences with patients. The first law is ‘A strong intuition is much more powerful than a weak test,’ explains that there may be some hidden variable when diagnosing a patient that could be crucial in life or death situations. A variableRead MoreKnowledge Is The Fundamental Understanding Of Knowledge1422 Words   |  6 Pagesthey do. Knowledge is what I understand and achieve through certain experiences or education. Knowledge is acquired through different life experiences such as the attendance of school which are later used in universities and the workforce. However, not all forms of knowledge is acquired through that method. This an assumption and has bias as this leans towards the statement that knowledge comes from education and life experiences. The more knowledge I have on a certain topic, the more control I haveRead MorePersonal Growth Initiative1246 Words   |  5 Pagesmight critically evaluate past, current, and future experiences to both determine potential areas for growth and monitor growth experiences. Behaviorally, these individuals would likely seek out experiences deemed important to personal growth. In contrast, an individual low in PGI would not consider growth as a criterion for examining past, current, and future experiences and therefore would not behaviorally seek out intentional growth experiences. Given that PGI is a broad goal orientation, it isRead MoreJean Watson s Theory And Philosophy870 Words   |  4 Pagesand write about because of its significant relevance to the professional and personal qualities of an effective, successful, nurse. The Ten Carative Factors are the basis of the Caring Science Theory, and serve as a guide to use when caring. They are skills and qualities I hope to master, an d also qualities I deeply admire in other nurses. Jean Watson’s theory and ideas can be helpful if applied beyond nursing to personal interactions between all people. The idea of nurses needing instruction inRead MoreHow Science And Religion Dynamically Work852 Words   |  4 Pageshappens when science and religion clash in a fiery battle of interpretations? In Waking Life Sister John suffers an internal battle between fact and faith, and attempts to discern between a powerful religious experience and the mere side effects of an epileptic disorder. However, instead of separating the two, she mediates by allowing â€Å"science† to deny her of what she had been experiencing without giving up her faith in God. In this essay, I will take a stance that explains how science and religionRead MorePhilosophy Has Influenced The Development Of Nursing1572 Words   |  7 Pagesand practices of nurses. Philosophies and experiences guide nurses in their professional decision mak ing. (Marchuk, 2014). To be able to articulate a personal philosophy of nursing and identify the philosophical influences, nurses must have basic understanding past contribution to the theories and philosophies that have helped shaped nursing today. Knowledge development and different methods have played a huge part in nursing s history. My personal philosophy aligns with that of Jean WatsonRead MoreThe Physics Of Science And Morality1271 Words   |  6 PagesOn the topic of science and morality, both have varying definitions that bring into question of how they relate to one another. Although some seem to pit the two against each other as opposing arguments, many versions of these definitions allow one to draw lines between the two, ultimately allowing for the conclusion that they have a connection. Science and morality resemble each other because both collect and organize data, derive from observation of the direct world, and make use of data to drawRead MoreMy Ideal Career Is A Lead Software Developer1342 Words   |  6 Pagesmust be a well experienced programmer. It will be required that I have many years of prior experience successfully working in other lower positions. By the time I apply I plan to have a few years of experience interning during college. The time I spend will provide me valuable experience working in the field of computer science. I plan to build my portfolio of projects to show that I have gained experience. These projects will outline my strengths and skills that I will develop. As an intern I willRead MoreMy Philosophy of Life Essay675 Words   |  3 Pagesthe opportunity to exercise my personal thoughts and beliefs. I have come to agree with Socrates that the unexamined life is not worth living. In my opinion life is a combination of philosophical ideas such as morality, respectÂ…Â…Â…Â…. The study of philosophy is a very complex and complicated task. There are so many different questions on many different topics and philosophy tries to explain them all. It tries to provide answers to the many questions that science and religion cannot explain. AndRead MoreWhen Math and Science Rule the School Essay1071 Words   |  5 PagesIn his essay â€Å"Dehumanized: When Math and Science Rule the School† published in Harper’s Magazine, Mark Slouka argues that mathematics and science are overshadowing important humanity studies throughout schools all over the United States. Slouka’s use of emotional and ethical appeals through personal experiences and extensive observation offer insight into what he believes is a problem in our modern society: Math and Science studies receiving more focus and importance than the humanities. Slouka’s

Nature V/S Nurture Free Essays

NATURE V/S NURTURE Good morning, ladies and gentlemen. My name is and I am standing here in front of you all to present to you my opinions about the topic â€Å"Nature v/s Nurture†. Considering it, the foremost question that comes to mind is what exactly is nature and nurture? My dear listeners, nature and nurture are a convenient jingle of words, for it separates under two distinct heads the innumerable elements of which personality is composed. We will write a custom essay sample on Nature V/S Nurture or any similar topic only for you Order Now Nature is all that a man brings with himself into the world; nurture is every influence that affects him after his birth. The use of the terms â€Å"nature† and â€Å"nurture† is a convenient catch-phrase for the roles of heredity and environment in human development. Some scientists think that people behave as they do according to genetic predispositions or even â€Å"animal instincts. † This is known as the â€Å"nature† theory of human behavior. Other scientists believe that people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is known as the â€Å"nurture† theory of human behavior. The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in psychology. It centers on the relative contributions of genetic inheritance and environmental factors to human development. The debate is actually about how far are human behaviors, ideas, and feelings, INNATE and how far are they all LEARNED? It concerns the relative importance of an individual’s innate qualities (â€Å"nature,† i. e. nativism, or innatism) versus personal experiences (â€Å"nurture,† i. e. empiricism or behaviorism) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits. For example, Is it just coincidence that Bobby Bonds and his son Barry both made baseball history with their all-star power and speed? Or that Francis Ford Coppola and daughter Sofia rose to fame as award-winning film directors? Or you got your green eyes from your mother, and your freckles from your father. But where did you get your thrill-seeking personality and talent for singing? Did you learn these from your parents or was it predetermined by your genes? While it’s clear that physical characteristics are hereditary, the genetic waters get a bit more murky when it comes to an ndividual’s behavior, intelligence, and personality. To fully understand it we need to discuss each part separately. The nature argument states that everything a person will ever become, their physical appearance, personality etc. , is already decided since their developmental information is in their genes. Genes are activated at appropriate times during development and are the basis for prote in production. Proteins include a wide range of molecules, such as hormones and enzymes that act in the body as signaling and structural molecules to direct development. Scientists have known for years that traits such as eye color and hair color are determined by specific genes encoded in each human cell. The Nature Theory takes things a step further to say that more abstract traits such as intelligence, personality, aggression, and sexual orientation are also encoded in an individual’s DNA. A good example of this is identical twins. If genetics didn’t play a part, then fraternal twins, reared under the same conditions, would be alike, regardless of differences in their genes. But, while studies show they do more closely resemble each other than do non-twin brothers and sisters, they also show these same striking similarities when reared apart – as in similar studies done with identical twins. The nurture argument, on the other hand, argues that although inherited genes make up the person, they do not limit the potential a person can achieve if the right environment is provided. While not discounting that genetic tendencies may exist, supporters of the nurture theory believe they ultimately don’t matter – that our behavioral aspects originate only from the environmental factors of our upbringing. Studies on infant and child temperament have revealed the most crucial evidence for nurture theories. * American psychologist John Watson, best known for his controversial experiments with a young orphan named Albert, demonstrated that the acquisition of a phobia could be explained by classical conditioning. A strong proponent of environmental learning, he said: Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select†¦ egardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors. * Harvard psychologist B. F. Skinner’s early experiments produced pigeons that could dance, do figure eights, and play tennis. Today known as the father of behavioral science, he eventually went on to prove that human behavior could be conditioned in much the same way as animals. * A study in New Scientist suggest s that sense of humor is a learned trait, influenced by family and cultural environment, and not genetically determined. If environment didn’t play a part in determining an individual’s traits and behaviors, then identical twins should, theoretically, be exactly the same in all respects, even if reared apart. But a number of studies show that they are never exactly alike, even though they are remarkably similar in most respects. Taking the above in considerastion, we can even find some cases in which both nature and nurture effect the individual’s traits. For example, identical twins reared apart are less similar than identical twins reared together. Another example is found by the researchers at the University of Southern California. They found that when it comes to taking that first smoke, women are more likely than men to be affected by environmental factors such as peer pressure. Genetic factors, however, play a larger role in influencing men to start smoking. Similarly, Mayo Clinic researchers found that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides and industrial chemicals, play a greater role in men developing Parkinson’s disease, while genetic factors affect Parkinson’s susceptibility in women. And even though scientists are finding genes linked to alcoholism, they aren’t ruling out environmental factors. Because even though it is now widely accepted that genetic variation predisposes to alcohol and drug dependence, but it’s also very clear that without environmental factors—including access to alcohol and drugs—addictions don’t occur. Turns out genes have what are called epigenetic markers. Acting like a volume knob for genes, these tags adjust the intensity of gene expression. Identical twins are born with the same epigenome. But over time, environmental factors such as chemical exposure, diet and other lifestyle differences can alter these markers. That’s why identical twins might become less alike as they get older. In one twin, an epigenetic marker could activate the gene expression for schizophrenia or cancer, but not in the other twin. This discovery has added another layer of complexity to the nature-versus-nurture matter: For instance, finding that identical twins don’t both display a disorder such as addiction, doesn’t mean that addiction is not genetic. So, was the way we behave engrained in us before we were born? Or has it developed over time in response to our experiences? Researchers on all sides of the nature vs nurture debate agree that the link between a gene and a behavior is not the same as cause and effect. While a gene may increase the likelihood that you’ll behave in a particular way, it does not make people do things. Which means that we still get to choose who we’ll be when we grow up. As Jawaharlal Nehru rightly said: â€Å"Life is like a game of cards. The hand that is dealt you represents determinism; the way you play it is free will†. Kranzler also said: â€Å"Genetic predisposition is not destiny,† So, the issue not only remains unresolved still but evidences and experiments show that the influence of both nature and nurture play enormous parts in our personal development or the inhibition of it. But the question now comes about the distribution of effecting traits between them. Ultimately, it is probably misleading to say that X% of behavioral trait is due to genes and (100-X)% is due to nurture/environment because there are no clear cut boundaries between them. The key is to understand the interactions between the two. This difference is perhaps highlighted in the quote attributed to psychologist Donald Hebb who is said to have once answered a journalist’s question of â€Å"which, nature or nurture, contributes more to personality? † by asking in response, â€Å"Which contributes more to the area of a rectangle, its length or its width? â€Å" How to cite Nature V/S Nurture, Papers

Black Out Periods And The Sarbanes Oxley Act Accounting Essay Example For Students

Black Out Periods And The Sarbanes Oxley Act Accounting Essay Who Suckered Who ( Executive Summary ) . The subsequent paper will discourse the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and how it specifically pertains to the Enron instance and their organisation. The former populace traded company that was one time valued at over 60 billion dollars and became one of the quickest and largest houses on Wall Street suffered an even quicker ruin by monopolising the system and interrupting Torahs. This paper will analyze an act that was passed based about entirely on the illegal minutess that transpired during the Enron epoch. It highlights the importance of the Sarbanes Oxley Act, its importance in this instance and specify what this act means for present and future companies. While Enron was surely non the first company to pull strings financess or deficiency concern moralss, their alone state of affairs gave Congress the necessary fuel to ordain this new jurisprudence. This act, every bit good as the Enron instance set new case in points lawfully and ethically and has changed the range of Wall Street. This essay besides emphasizes black out yearss, an of import facet of the Enron instance that provided grounds to their immoral concern behaviour in add-on to more support of implementing the Sarbanes Oxley Act. Blackout yearss involve a period of clip where an employee or stakeholder can non obtain loans, distribute financess or reassign and/or diversify assets for more than three back-to-back concern yearss. During this period, these options are suspended, limited or restricted. If a company needs to entree these options during this period, they must give notice written in apparent English in a timely mode to the issuer of any employer securities. Even though blackout day of the months existed prior to Enron, the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 revised the regulations and new limitations were Enron-Driven. The paper below will besides discourse Enron s disgraceful behaviour and several of the many Torahs that were broken that created the Sarbanes Oxley Act every bit good as how other companies and stakeholders will profit from the act. It will besides explicate that although many will state deficiency of moralss do non needfully intend interrupting Torahs, the alterations in the Sarbanes Oxley Act were set in topographic point due to the immoral actions of Enron executives and their stakeholders. In fact, the Act suggests that its executing was due in portion to contending legal but immoral actions. Finally, the paper will reason with the punishments that a one would confront should they go against any of the regulations in the Sarbanes Oxley Act. It besides draws attending to ways to protect oneself should they go cognizant of a individual or company go againsting the Act. It stresses how Enron s ruin set new legal case in points and sets an illustration of what non make both lawfully and professionally. Outline1 Meet the Crooks ( Situational Analysis )2 What Went Wrong ( Analysis of relevant legal and ethical issues )3 A4 A5 A6 Retribution ( Recommendations A ; Conclusions )7 Beginnings: A8 A9 A Meet the Crooks ( Situational Analysis ) At the clip of its prostration, Enron made history as the largest and most ill-famed bankruptcy in American history. This was of class before the prostration of WorldCom and Leman Brothers, and its failure was straight responsible for the creative activity of the Sarbanes Oxley Act, GAAP ( Generally Accepted Accounting Principles ) and the constitution of the PCAOB ( Public Corporation Accounting Oversight Board ) . Enron was so much at mistake for the constitution of these ordinances that the Sarbanes Oxley Act reads about identically as a prohibition to each now improper action taken by Enron s executives. Overnight, the prostration of Enron destroyed 1000s of pensions, investings and retirement financess. The impact was so terrible that stakeholders were still being compensated every bit tardily as December 2009. In 2001, cardinal Executives of Enron, an highly powerful and influential energy corporation and attached accounting and fiscal houses were found guilty of corporate frau d, obstructor of justness, disproof of paperss, peculation and insider trading. The building of Enron s death began in 1992 when Jeff Skilling the President and COO of Enron convinced Federal regulators to allow Enron utilize an accounting method called grade to market which allowed them to grossly blow up their accounting figures. With the aid of accounting house Arthur Anderson which now Accenture, Enron was able to tacitly hide their losingss by implementing a assortment of unscrupulous accounting patterns. Andy Fastow created 3000 particular involvement keeping corporations, which he used to hide Enron s losingss, implemented distribution of corporate equity disguised as loans and employed complex namelessness patterns which included neglecting to bring forth balance sheets with gaining statements. An illustration includes the materializing of the California energy crisis, where Enron deliberately created the semblance of an energy deficit which they used to drive monetary values upward. Another illustration is when in 1999, Enron sold Merrill Lynch a $ 7 million interest in three energy-generating flatboats in Nigeria. Enron disguised the sale as a loan, yet reported it as a $ 12 million net income. As a consequence of such patterns Enron s stock monetary value grew steadily and by early August 2001 the monetary value was over $ 90 per portion. The SEC announced that they were traveling to look into Enron and by August 15, 2001, the stock monetary value had fallen down to $ 42 per portion, $ 15 by the terminal of October and closed at $ 0.60 per portion in late November before a bankruptcy filing on December 2, 2001. God And Descartes EssayIn Section 306, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act prohibits executives from selling stock during these blackout periods. During the Enron dirt, when employees were unable to sell their portions as the stock monetary value plummeted, but senior executives were. This resulted in many employees 401k s being wiped out. Furthermore, Section 306 ever requires that companies give their employees 30-days notice prior to a blackout period, or face $ 100 per participant for every twenty-four hours of a blackout period ( Grill ) .A A It is of import to understand that these blackout periods are, in most instances, wholly legal. They normally occur when there are administrative alterations in the 401k section. The job in the Enron instance is that while the blackout period was normal in nature and length, it came at a really bad clip, as the company was fighting and head executives were cognizant that things were merely traveling to acquire worse. Legal action can be taken in these state of affairs if it is deemed that Enron executives did non move with their employees best involvements in head when publishing the blackout period ( Marchiz ) .A Class action suits followed on the behalf of Enron employees. These suits were filed against Enron functionaries, Enron s comptroller Arthur Andersen, and Northern Trust, the 401k program s decision maker ( Enron 401 ( K ) Litigation ) . Retribution ( Recommendations A ; Conclusions ) Future companies must larn from the errors made by Enron through the usage of hazard direction safeguards. Since the clip of the Enron dirt, statute law has passed that give companies clearer guidelines to follow and inducements to move consequently. Clearly, one of the most of import stairss companies must take is to ahdere to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Section 306, when calculating out how to manage blackout periods. Executives must forbear from trading during blackout periods, and must give proper warning to employees when these periods are nearing. A great trade of the death of Enron was attributed to many people turning a blind oculus to evidently flawed fiscal records. A major issue addressed in the Sarbanes Oxley Act was forestalling such witting turning away. CEO s and CFO must subscribe off on all fiscal statements and letters that are issued to the populace. There was besides the issue of privacy, non revelation, change and straight-out devastation of paperss which is an obstructor of justness. Such actions are now penalized by mulcts and 10 to 20 old ages of prison clip. No longer can a corporation s accounting house provide any other services than accounting to said corporation, as to forestall a struggle of involvement. Most significantly the corporate organisation has been wholly restructured restructured. The board of managers must dwell of a bulk of independent members. The board must keep meetings independent of those with the executives. The compensation, audit and nominating commissions must dwell wholly of independent managers. Last the hearers must describe straight to the audit commission and non the officers and managers. Beyond blackout periods, nevertheless, Sarbanes-Oxley besides requires the Federal Sentencing Commission to observe ways for companies to better ethical civilization. Companies would be well-advised to follow these guidelines, such as: Instill a codification of moralss Train employees in the codification and in moralss, in general A agency for employees to describe misconduct ( ex: hotline ) Follow-up on studies of misconduct submitted by employees Action by the board on ailments Self-reporting and probe on ethical and legal issues Sanctions and expirations for those who violate the jurisprudence and company regulations A high-level officer to be in charge of using the codification of moralss ( Jennings, 61 ) Beginnings: A Enron 401 ( K ) Litigation . JPMorgan Chase. 04/10/2010 lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // pagename=JPM_redesign/JPM_Content_C/Generic_Detail_Page_Template A ; cid=1159307685433 A ; c=JPM_Content_C gt ; .A A Grill, Bennet. Sarbanes-Oxley for Entrepreneurs . Gaebler. 04/10/2010 lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // gt ; .A Honig, Stephen ; Morris, Duane. Rights and Duties of Public Employers, Executives and Lawyers After Sarbanes-Oxley.A Kautter, David. DOL issues Enron-driven blackout rules. . The Free Library. 04/10/2010 lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // % 22blackout % 22+rules-a096555837 gt ; .A A Machiz, Mark. PRESERVING Pension . PBS. 04/10/2010 lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: // gt ; . SEC Adopts Rules on Provisions of Sarbanes-Oxley Act: Washington, D.C. , January 15, 2003. Welytok, Jill. Sarbanes-Oxley for Dummies. Wiley Publishing, 2008. Jennings, Marianne. Business: Its Legal, Ethical, and Global Environment. Mason, Ohio: Cengage Learning, 2008.A