Saturday, November 30, 2019

Inflation Management in Sri Lanka free essay sample

Amarasekara (2008, p. 37) also concluded that in most sub-samples, inflation does not decline following a contractionary policy shock, possibly due to the longer lag effect. Innovations to money growth raise the interest rate, and when inflation does respond, it reacts to monetary innovations faster than GDP growth does. International Monetary Fund (2008) showed that changes in policy interest rates have significant effects on output but a small impact on inflation. Credit does not respond strongly to changes in policy interest rates. 3. Objectives of the Study The Central bank conducts monetary policy to achieve its one of primary objectives of price stability by changing interest rate and money supply. Therefore, the main objective of the study is to identify the relationship between the interest rate and inflation in Sri Lanka. A successful monetary policy strategy requires an understanding of the relationship between operating instruments of monetary policy (i. e. interest rate) and the ultimate goals like the price stability and output. We will write a custom essay sample on Inflation Management in Sri Lanka or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Therefore, the study will help to identify the effectiveness of policy rates as a monetary policy instrument for inflation management. . Model, Methodology and Data Analysis Model and Methodology A regression model will be used to estimate the effect of key variables on inflation. The main concern of the study is the effect of the interest rate on the inflation. However, the model will be incomplete without including the variables below. This study tries to improve past models done by Sri Lankan economists by including additional macroeconomic variables namely; unemployment (UN), budget deficit (BD) and foreign inflation (FI) to remove any omitted variables bias. In this analysis, MMR is used as changes in policy rate are immediately transmitted to MMR. Inflation: According to previous literature, past inflation has an effect on current inflation through expectations. Here the Colombo Consumer Price Index (CCPI) is used. Exchange rate (ER): Changes in in the exchange rate affects the price of exports and imports in the country, and thus has a direct effect on inflation as Sri Lanka is heavily depend on international trade. GDP growth (GDP): The GDP is seasonally adjusted to capture seasonality. Unemployment (UN): According to the Phillips Curve there is an inverse relationship between unemployment and inflation. Foreign Inflation (FI): In 2011, imports accounted for 37. 6% of GDP (CBSL Annual Report 2011) in Sri Lanka, and therefore prices of goods and services of Sri Lanka’s major trading partners can have an influential effect on inflation. Budget Deficit (BD): Most of the past literatures in Sri Lanka have omitted this important variable. However, public finance is an important issue in Sri Lanka and the effect of Monetary Policy cannot be studied without it. Data Collection For this study quarterly data will be obtained for all the variables from the first quarter of 1996 to the last quarter of 2011. The main data sources of the analysis are Annual Reports of CBSL, Monthly Bulletins of CBSL, other publications of CBSL, Annual Reports and Quarterly Reports of the Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka, and the World Bank Report 2011-2012. Analytical Tools The OLS regression model will describe the significance of key variables of the model and the effectiveness of the model in explaining the objective of the study. Apart from the simple OLS regression analysis, various econometric models will be used to obtain outcomes such as unit-root tests, Granger causality tests, impulse response and AR-root tests and Vector auto regression. The Ramsey’s Reset Test will be used for checking functional form mis-specification of the model. The normality of errors and other non-spherical disturbances will be checked using White’s Test (for Heteroskedasticity) and Durbin Watson Test (for serial correlation). The model also will be tested by omitting the interest rate variable and regressing the restricted model using J-Test to determine if the model is very different.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Rob roy essays

Rob roy essays The film Rob Roy tells the story of one the most notorious clans of the Scottish highlands the MacGregors. However the film also illustrates the great differences between the old style highlands and the new English style aristocracy. The film shows how the difference in values relates to the political and economic trends of the early 18th century. Foremost the film illustrates the difference in economic standing between the upper-class aristocrats and the highlanders, which in many ways defines a great deal of their differences. The MacGregors live on a small plot of land and make their living by raising and trading cattle. Though it was possible to earn some money in this manner, it was by no means a venture that would bring great wealth. This is evident in the very primitive accommodations in which they live. Their homes are made of stone and have straw roofs, while the aristocrats have much more modern buildings. The highlanders also dress in much more ragged clothing and are much more rugged in appearance. Aside from a few exceptions the highlanders are dirty and have shabby beards and yellow teeth. This compared to the clean-cut and refined look of the aristocrats demonstrates the very clear differences in both life style and wealth. The appearances of the nobles is distinctly English in their clothing and gener al appearance. All of the aristocrats in the film are dressed similar to their English counterparts and also wear wigs as a sign of superiority. Furthermore the film shows the nobilitys life style is much like that of the English in that they have a court and use similar etiquette in their social settings. Furthermore the several dueling matches hosted for entertainment, in which the nobles place wagers on, are very similar to that of English nobles. The very different portrayals in the film illustrate many differences beyond just appearances as these differences are most clearly seen in this respect...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Figure of Sound in Prose and Poetry

Figure of Sound in Prose and Poetry A figure of speech that relies primarily on the sound of a word or phrase (or the repetition of sounds) to convey a particular effect is known as a figure of sound. Although figures of sound are often found in poetry, they can also be used effectively in prose. Common figures of sound include alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, and rhyme. Examples and Observations: AlliterationA moist young moon hung above the mist of a neighboring meadow.(Vladimir Nabokov, Speak Memory: An Autobiography Revisited, 1966)AssonanceShips at a distance have every mans wish on board. For some they come in with the tide. For others they sail forever on the same horizon, never out of sight, never landing until the Watcher turns his eyes away in resignation, his dreams mocked to death by Time. That is the life of men.(Zora Neale Hurston, Their Eyes Were Watching God, 1937)ConsonanceThis earth is tough stuff, he said. Break a mans back, break a plow, break an oxs back for that matter.(David Anthony Durham, Gabriels Story. Doubleday, 2001)OnomatopoeiaFlora left Franklin’s side and went to the one-armed bandits spread along one whole side of the room. From where she stood it looked like a forest of arms yanking down levers. There was a continuous clack, clack, clack of levers, then a click, click, click of tumblers coming up. Following this was a metallic poof some times followed by the clatter of silver dollars coming down through the funnel to land with a happy smash in the coin receptacle at the bottom of the machine.(Rod Serling, The Fever. Stories From the Twilight Zone, 2013) RhymeA veritable fusillade of smells, compounded of the pungent odors of deep fat, sharks fin, sandalwood, and open drains, now bombarded our nostrils and we found ourselves in the thriving hamlet of Chinwangtao. Every sort of object imaginable was being offered by street hawkersbasketwork, noodles, poodles, hardware, leeches, breeches, peaches, watermelon seeds, roots, boots, flutes, coats, shoats, stoats, even early vintage phonograph records.(S.J. Perelman, Westward Ha! 1948)Figures of Sound in Poes ProseDuring the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country, and at length found myself, as the shades of evening drew on, within view of the melancholy House of Usher.(Edgar Allan Poe, The Fall of the House of Usher, 1839)Figures of Sound in Dylan Thomass ProseThere was no need, that holiday morning, for the sluggardly boys to be shouted down to breakfast; out of their jumbled beds they tumbled, and scrambled into their rumpled clothes; quickly at the bathroom basin they catlicked their hands and faces, but never forgot to run the water loud and long as though they washed like colliers; in front of the cracked looking-glass, bordered with cigarette cards, in their treasure-trove bedrooms, they whisked a gap-tooth comb through their surly hair; and with shining cheeks and noses and tidemarked necks, they took the stairs three at a time.But for all their scramble and scamper, clamour on the landing, catlick and toothbrush flick, hair-whisk and stair-jump, their sisters were always there before them. Up with the lady lark, they had prinked and frizzed and hot-ironed; and smug in their blossoming dresses, ribboned for the sun, in gym-shoes white as the blancod snow, neat and silly with doilies and tomatoes they helped in the higgledy kitchen. They were calm; they were virtuous; they had washed their necks; they did not romp, or fidget; and only the smallest sister put out her tongue at the noisy boys.(Dylan Thomas, Holiday Memory, 1946. Rpt. in The Collected Stories. New Directions, 1984) Figures of Sound in John Updikes Prose- Do you remember a fragrance girls acquire in autumn? As you walk beside them after school, they tighten their arms about their books and bend their heads forward to give a more flattering attention to your words, and in the little intimate area thus formed, carved into the clear air by an implicit crescent, there is a complex fragrance woven of tobacco, powder, lipstick, rinsed hair, and that perhaps imaginary and certainly elusive scent that wool, whether in the lapels of a jacket or the nap of a sweater, seems to yield when the cloudless fall sky like the blue bell of a vacuum lifts toward itself the glad exhalations of all things. This fragrance, so faint and flirtatious on those afternoon walks through the dry leaves, would be banked a thousandfold and lie heavy as the perfume of a flower shop on the dark slope of the stadium when, Friday nights, we played football in the city.(John Updike, In Football Season. The New Yorker, November 10, 1 962)- By rhyming, language calls attention to its own mechanical nature and relieves the represented reality of seriousness. In this sense, rhyme and allied irregularities like alliteration and assonance assert a magical control over things and constitute a spell. When children, in speaking, accidentally rhyme, they laugh, and add, Im a poet / And dont know it, as if to avert the consequences of a stumble into the supernatural. . . .Our mode is realism, realistic is synonymous with prosaic, and the prose writers duty is to suppress not only rhyme but any verbal accident that would mar the textual correspondence to the massive, onflowing impersonality that has supplanted the chiming heavens of the saint.(John Updike, Rhyming Max. Assorted Prose. Alfred A. Knopf, 1965) Poetic Functions of Language[English poet] Gerard Manley Hopkins, an outstanding searcher in the science of poetic language, defined verse as speech wholly or partially repeating the same figure of sound. Hopkins subsequent question, but is all verse poetry? can be definitely answered as soon as the poetic function ceases to be arbitrarily confined to the domain of poetry. Mnemonic lines cited by Hopkins (like Thirty days hath September), modern advertising jingles, and versified medieval laws, mentioned by Lotz, or finally Sanskrit scientific treatises in verse which in Indic tradition are strictly distinguished from true poetry (kavya)all these metrical texts make use of the poetic function without, however, assigning to this function the coercing, determining role it carries in poetry.(Roman Jakobson, Language in Literature. Harvard University Press, 1987)Word Play and Sound Play in a Poem by E.E. Cummingsapplaws)fellowsitisnts(a paw s(E.E. Cummings, Poem 26 in 1 X 1, 1944) The False Dichotomy Between Sound and SenseIn plain expository prose, such as this book is written in, says [literary critic G.S. Fraser], both writer and reader are consciously concerned not mainly with rhythm but with sense. This is a false dichotomy. The sounds of a poem connected by rhythm are indeed the living body of thought. Take the sound as poetry and there is no further stage of interpretation into poetry. Just the same is true of periodic prose: the rhythm of the period organizes sound into a unit of sense.My criticism of the logical tradition in grammar is just that stress, pitch, attitude, emotion are not suprasegmental matters added to the basic logic or syntax but other glimpses of a linguistic whole which includes grammar as usually understood. . . . I accept the now unfashionable view of all the old grammarians that prosody is a necessary part of grammar. . . .Figures of thought like understatement or emphasis are no more and no less expressed in sound than anything else.(Ian Robinson, The Establishment of Modern English Prose in the Reformation and the Enlightenment. Cambridge University Press, 1998) Figures of Sound in 16th-Century Prose- Suspicion that an inordinate attraction to figures of sound was likely to tyrannise a writers style, that the claims of the ear threatened to dominate those of the mind, has always dogged analysis of Tudor prose, especially in the case of [John] Lyly. Francis Bacon indicted [Roger] Ascham and his followers for precisely this failing: for men began to hunt more after words than matter; more after the choiceness of the phrase, and the round and clean composition of the sentence, and the sweet falling of the clauses, and the varying and illustration of their works with tropes and figures, than after the weight of the matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of judgment [The Advancement of Learning].(Russ McDonald, Compar or Parison: Measure for Measure. Renaissance Figures of Speech, ed. by Sylvia Adamson, Gavin Alexander, and Katrin Ettenhuber. Cambridge University Press, 2007)- Shall my good will be the cause of his ill will? Because I was content to be his friend, thought he me meet to be made his fool? I see now that as the fish scolopidus in the flood Araris at the waxing of the moon is as white as the driven snow, and at the waning as black as the burnt coal, so Euphues, which at the first increasing of our familiarity was very zealous, is now at the last cast become most faithless.(John Lyly, Euphues: the Anatomy of Wit, 1578) See also: 10 Titillating Types of Sound Effects in LanguageEuphonyEuphuismExercise in Identifying Sound Effects in Poetry and ProseFigures of SpeechHomoioteleutonHomophonesOronymProsodyReduplicativeRhythmSound Symbolism

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Research paper Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Research paper - Case Study Example For each of these diseases a physical examination will have to be done to achieve a proper diagnosis of each. A 16-year-old female (Jesse) presented with her mother (Mrs. B.) at the doctor’s office. Jesse states that the following subjective symptoms that she is experiencing included feeling extremely tired and fatigued, lack of appetite. In fact, she appears to have ‘tomato red cheeks’ as if someone slapped her. She also states that she has had a fever for the past 24 hours. According to the Mrs. B, she gave her daughter Tylenol for the fever, and noted that it was effective for a short period. She also revealed that they had just moved to California three months ago. Moreover, the patient had recently begun working as a teacher’s helper in a preschool. At the school a number of students had not reported to school due to a rash outbreak. In addition, Jesse also revealed that she had her period (menses) one week ago. Her mother asks a question about her own health for she happens to be five months pregnant. The three differential diagnoses that this patient could be suffering from are Mononucleosis, Fifth Disease, and Kawasaki’s Disease. This 16 year old female is exhibiting prodromal symptoms (symptoms that occur before the actual onset of the disease) of these three diseases. Three Differential Diagnoses for this Patient Diagnosis- Characterized by malaise, anorexia, chills and fever which is a prodromal symptom, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy. Occasionally, the disorder comes on abruptly with high fever. Seek help when severe pharyngitis lasts for five to seven days. Only 90% of patients suffer from lymphadenopathy even though the patient shows no signs at this moment. Rashes that appear look like Rubella when it may appear. Although the disease is common with teenagers it also affects the elderly and the symptoms and management are the same. Screening- Most

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

The Future of the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Future of the United States - Essay Example These changes will have an impact on the local and national electoral politics. Additionally, there are various issues that are likely to arise alienating this group of people. The growing Hispanic population will result into changes in the voting trends among the US citizens. This was clearly seen during the 2012 elections in the US whereby 78% of his votes were from non-white individuals (Zakheim, 2012). This shows that politicians have to rethink their campaign strategy by taking into consideration the issues affecting this population. This will have a major impact on the strategy that has been employed by the Republican Party over the years. In general, politicians will have to extend their appeal to the minorities. In the present times the minorities make up 28 percent of the electorate (Zakheim, 2012). This number of individuals is likely to increase in future calling on politicians to come up with ways that appeal to the come up with ways to appeal to the Hispanic vote. It can be observed that in the previous general election the Republican candidate, Mitt Romney only got 20% of the non-white votes (Zakheim, 2012). There are diverse issues that are likely to come up with relation to the foreign policy. In the present times, illegal immigration is the most adverse problem in foreign policy and it is largely viewed as domestic policy issue (Fry and Passel, 2009). It is clear that the government has failed to address this issue head on. The US has dedicated its resources towards addressing issues facing other parts of the world Central Asia, Middle East, Southern Europe and Africa (Zakheim, 2012). Yet, they have failed to address the issues facing nations along the US border that have resulted into increased immigration. The US should review its foreign policy with regards to illegal immigration. The government is advised to come up with a fast-track national service initiative similar to the one that is

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Driving Stick Shift Essay Example for Free

Driving Stick Shift Essay Learning to drive a stick shift is one of the things I mastered in life because of the effort and practice I’ve invested. I can still remember the day I learned how to drive a manual transmission car. My cousin stopped by our house and I asked him to teach me how to drive. The only problem was his car was a stick shift. I honestly got intimidated by those horrendous three pedals and that hair-chilling gear shifter, but nothing stopped me from wanting to learn because I knew it would be worth it and I thought I would make me look cooler. So he grabbed the keys and drove to a parking lot that had a wide empty road. He stopped, turned off the car, got out and said â€Å"Okay, your turn. † So I began the initiation into the high art of driving a stick shift. He gave me all the instructions, he told me to press down on the clutch so I can start the car. I kept my left foot on the clutch and put the car in first gear. I slowly released the clutch as I was slowly pressing on the gas pedal. Then, boom! I stalled and the car shut off. My cousin started laughing. I tried to get the car started again and I still stalled on my fifth attempt. He continued laughing while giving me advices. Finally, on my sixth attempt I got the car going. When he saw that I could stop and get the car moving normally and shift gears without grinding the clutch, he gave me the green light to drive to the main streets and freeways. It took me a lot of practices and effort before I got the gist of it. It was all worth it, I actually enjoyed it and promised that my next car would be a stick shift. At first I thought having a stick shift car would only make me look cooler, but when I had my own car I actually learned that it’s less expensive then automatic cars, gets better gas mileage and most of all it’s simply more fun!

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Technology vs Organic Essay -- Agricultural Research

Humanity’s timeline illustrates the past, present and future of human beings; commencing nearly 200,000 years ago when Homo sapiens first diverged from its ancestors (Evans,1998). For the next 188,000 years humans were content to forge and live within the constructs of a hunter-gatherer societal organization. Approximately 12,000 years ago agricultural systems began appearing in various places around the world. An astonishingly short period of time later the Agricultural Revolution transformed human ecology, social organization, demography, culture, and religion (Fagan: 2007). Man wholeheartedly embraced the sweeping changes bought on by agriculture and domestication, which definitely proved key to the long run success of agriculture and domestication as a primary method of procuring sustenance. Despite a rapidly changing world, basic and primal human nature and desire remain utterly unchanged. The most fundamental of these challenges is the establishment of an adequate supply of food. The modern food infrastructure employed by contemporary society is rooted in the creation and innovation of food production. Its effective utilization decreases the level of societal labor contribution required and discourages food shortage trepidation amongst individuals. It is hard to fathom given the current status of our society massive agricultural-industrial complex that the hunter-gatherer organization of society dominated for more than 99 percent of our existence (Fagan: 2007). The hunter-gatherer population was characterized by their primary subsistence method, which involved the direct procurement of edible plants and animals from the wild. The primary methods employed were foraging and hunting, which were conducted without any sig... ...y 22.New challenges in food preservation. (2011): 121-126. ScienceDirect. Web. 4 May 2012. Paarlberg, Robert. "The Ethics Of Modern Agriculture." Society 46.1 (2009): 4. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 4 May 2012. Evans, L. T. (1998). Feeding the Ten Billion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Fagan, Brian M. June 2007 World Prehistory: A Brief Introduction. Chapter 5: The Origins of Food Production. Prentice Hall. University of California: Santa Barbara. Pg 126, 129, 132, 132-133, 133, 133-134, 136-137, 137-138, 138 Pringle, Heather November 1998 Science Neolithic Agriculture: The Slow Birth of Agriculture. Vol. 282. No. 539: Pg. 1446 Porter, J., & Rasmussen, J. (2009). Agriculture and Technology. En B. J. Olsen, S. A. Pedersen, & V. Hendricks, A Companion to the Philosophy of Technology (pà ¡gs. 285-289). Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell

Monday, November 11, 2019

Miss Havisham Essay

Satis house, where Miss Havisham lives, is seen as gothic and strange. The house had all ‘the windows walled up’ symbolising that Miss Havisham is trapping herself from reality. Dickens also highlights her frailty as if the natural light could ‘struck her to dust’ suggesting that she’s almost vampiric or supernatural, adding to the Victorian audiences fascination. Additionally, the repetition of the house being ‘rustily barred’ can reflect the house as being a prison as Miss Havisham has imprisoned herself, Dickens could also be trying to represent her feelings of insecurity and decay. The first sight the reader gets of Miss Havisham is of her sitting ‘in an arm chair, with an elbow resting on the table’ this image is one of resignation and dejection as there is a sense that Miss Havisham has given up. She was wearing a wedding dress, symbolising that she is trying to preserve the identity as an expectant bride. It was made of ‘rich materials- satins, lace and silks’ emphasising her wealth, however these rich materials that were ‘once white’ are ‘now yellow’ The syntax shows that even though time has moved on, Miss Havisham is locked in a moment of stasis. Pips narrative voice explains her to ‘the strangest lady I have ever seen, or shall ever see’ The adjective ‘strange’ qualifies how odd and perverse Miss Havisham appears and the additional clause ‘or shall ever see’ further qualifies how her strangeness is extraordinary. Dickens, however, denies sympathy for Miss Havisham as his gothic depiction of her, causes her to become a freakish object of ridicule. She appears as a ‘skeleton in the ashes of a rich dress’ that has ‘shrunk to skin and bone’. Dickens shows that there is a physical and emotional decay that appears gothic and skeletal. She has become ‘withered’ making her ‘the complete realisation of the ghastly waxwork at the fair’. Dickens purposely states her as the waxwork at the fair as these freakish displays were shown as a form of popular Victorian entertainment. His physical description of Miss Havisham is seen as monstrous and grotesque embodying the form of a gothic monster, therefore making it difficult for the reader to sympathise with her. The language, Dickens uses, is associated with death as he is implying that love humanises and offers life and hope to people, whereas Miss Havisham has locked her heart away, therefore making it seem as though she is deathly. Furthermore, the image of Miss Havisham looking at herself in the mirror shows how she is uncertain of her identity, as she tries to fix herself as an expectant bride. The way she views herself is different to how she seems, ‘so new to him, so old to me: so strange to him, so familiar to me’ she has locked herself in the past and is unable to move on from a time she was happy. Pip forces Miss Havisham to think and look at herself differently. The syntax’s ‘new’-‘old’ and ‘strange’-‘familiar’ shows how she is moving in and out of different perspective. The use of the words as opposites shows how she has a completely misplaced view of herself. Alternatively, in chapter 49, Miss Havisham becomes humanised. Her appearance is acknowledged as Pip finds her sitting in a ‘ragged chair’ which presents a sense of decay and lost worth. There was a ‘new expression’ on her face, but her eyes pained, her face was worn by something more than age and her appearance overall is described as more haggard and withered than ever. She was staring at the ‘ashy fire†¦ lost in contemplation’, in this image Dickens appears to play on the myth of the phoenix as the ‘ashy fire’ implies that Miss Havisham, like the phoenix rising form the ashes, wishes to be reborn in order to atone her malice. Miss Havisham’s freakish appearance at the start of the novel changes as Dickens humanises her to point where she cries. She ‘dropped on her knees at my feet and held her hands out†¦ hung her head and wept’ showing the physical image of Miss Havisham’s repentance makes her seem vulnerable as it is the first time the reader sees her cry and showing her feelings, especially to a man. The crying humanises her as we see her real emotions, it also links to the myth of the phoenix as the tears are said to heal. In the process of Miss Havisham setting alight; Pip sees ‘her running at me, shrieking, with a whirl of fire blazing all about her’ Dickens in this image presents Miss Havisham as devilish as she runs towards Pip. However, it relates to the myth of the phoenix and shows that through the burning of her dress she is forgiven and extends the idea of being cleansed as it purges all evil. As Pip tries to distinguish the flames, he drags down the ‘great cloth from the table and with it dragged down the heap of rottenness and all the ugly things that sheltered there’ and wrapped it around Miss Havisham, showing his care and consideration that has grown for Miss Havisham. Whilst Pip cradles Miss Havisham on the floor, the ‘beetles and spiders were running away over the floor’ whereas before the spiders were nibbling at Miss Havisham, again a sense of purging, cleansing and healing. As they lay Miss Havisham on the table with a ‘white sheet loosely covering her’ suggests that she is finally at peace and furthermore gives a sense of purity and cleansing with the pure white sheet. ‘The phantom air of something that had been and was changed’ Dickens shows the reader that Miss Havisham has changed during this and has become reborn. To conclude, Dickens presents Miss Havisham as a challenge to Victorian society. He also shows that love is redemptive and necessary and without it, we are nothing. Within Miss Havisham’s reformation Dickens shows the strength of her character. His intentions in creating Miss Havisham were to try and show the hardship that women who were rejected by the Victorian society had to go through and how cruel the society have been in marginalising them. By doing so Dickens has cleverly began to deconstruct the stereotype of a spinster and questions expectations. Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Great Expectations section.

Saturday, November 9, 2019


Spanking is a form of corporal punishment. Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain as retribution for an offence. It is usually done in act by an adult, parent, or guardian hitting the child or students buttock. The reason this is done is in response to bad behavior. Some countries have outlawed the act of spanking in every setting, but many allow it as long as it is done by a parent or guardian. As many people think spanking is an okay discipline, this one of the most controversial methods of disciplining your child. On one side some parents think spanking should never be done, and then there are parents who believe it is okay as long as it is done for a particular reason. To some spanking a child means â€Å"slapping a child on the buttock† (Straus, 1991, pg 5) Spanking a child may stop the child from behaving for the moment but that will only last for a short period of time. An article from Mayo Clinic states, â€Å"Children learn how to act by watching their parents. The best way to show your child how to behave is to set a positive example for him or her to follow† This is saying that if you spank your child, your child will think it is okay to hurt others. Also that your children look up to you, parents are a role model for their child. There was a study released in 1991 by The Family Research Laboratory of the Univeristy of New Hampshire that was showed that the more a child is spanked, the lower that their IQ test will be in four years. The paper was described by researcher Dr. Straus at the World Congress of Sociology in Montreal. They studied 960 children who were varied between the ages of one and four between the years of 1986-1990. Thirteen percent of parents examined spanking their children seven or more time a week. The usual was 3. 6 spanking per week. The children that were physically disciplined scored a below average score of 98 on their tests. Those who were almost never disciplined scored an above average of 102 on their tests. â€Å"We know that children who are under the threat of violence or aggression develop a fight-or-flight response system that has an impact on creativity and imagination, both of which could influence their IQ†¦ Children need discipline but not hitting. (Jane Gadd, â€Å"Spanked children suffer intellectually,† The Globe and Mail, Toronto ON, 1998-JUL-30) This is stating that children do not need to be hit in order to be taught between wrong and right. Beacause spanking a child may be effective for a while it can escalade. The parent will often repeat this action every time the child misbehaves. Corporal punishment may become an â€Å"everyday† action which can lead to an increasingly normal and harsher spanking can exceed the reasonable force and later turn into abuse. 85% of all cases of physical abuse result from some form of over discipline through the use of corporal punishment† this means that 85% of cases of abuse have started from a simple spanking and escaladed. That being said, after spanking has led to more this action can unintentionally cause serious physical damage. A child that is hit can accidentally fall and injure themselves. Hitting a child’s hand can cause premature osteoarthritis, injure bones, blood vessels, joints and ligaments. Spanking a child can cause death, injure the tail bone, the sciatic nerve, and even injure muscles. Hitting the ear can burst the ear drum.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Religion in Germany

Religion in Germany For good reason, the intersection of the huge topics â€Å"religion† and â€Å"Germany† is understandably Martin Luther. Luther was born in Eisleben, Germany, in 1483, and his family soon moved to Mansfeld, Germany. Luther received a superb basic education in Latin and German, entered the University of Erfurt in 1501, where he received his baccalaureate degree in 1502 and his master’s degree in 1505. Urged by his father, Luther undertook graduate work in law, but switched to theology within six weeks, owing, he said, to a violent thunderstorm that so terrified him (â€Å"besieged by the terror and agony of sudden death†) he promised God to become a monk if he survived. Luther began his so-called priestly formation at the University of Erfurt, became a priest in 1507, transferred to the University of Wittenberg in 1508, and completed his doctorate in 1512, which the University of Erfurt granted based on his studies at Wittenberg. Five years later, the rift with Catholicism that became the Protestant Reformation began and the ripple effect of Luther’s Ninety-five Theses in 1517 changed the world forever. Today, Germany is still a Christian nation, although, in keeping with religious freedom, there is no official religion. â€Å"Religionen Weltanschauungsgemeinschaften in Deutschland: Mitgliederzahlen† analyzed results of the 2011 census and found that ca. 67% of the population identified themselves as Christian, i.e., Protestant or Catholic, while Islam comprised ca. 4.9%. There are very, very small Jewish and Buddhist groups that are barely measurable, so the remaining population, i.e., ca 28%, either belong to unidentified religious groups or do not belong to any formal religious group. The German constitution (Grundgesetz fà ¼r die Bundesrepublik Deutschland), which opens with these stirring words: â€Å"Human dignity is inviolable,† guarantees freedom of religion for everyone. The core of this guarantee of religious freedom is based on â€Å". . . the freedom of religion, conscience and the freedom of confessing one’s religious or philosophical beliefs are inviolable. Uninfringed religious practice is guaranteed.† But the guarantee does not stop there. The very nature and form of the government reà ¯nforce and bolster that guarantee with many safeguards that strengthen one another synergistically, e.g., a democratic society, popular sovereignty, a strong emphasis on social responsibility, and binding federalism among the sixteen German states (Deutsche Bundeslnder). There is an excellent, in-depth discussion of religious freedom in Germany in Wikipedia  which provides many details and examples for those who wish to know specifics. It is certainly worth one’s time. The overall distribution of religious affiliations can be outlined roughly as follows: you’re more likely to encounter Protestants in the North and Northeast and Catholics in the South and Southwest; however, â€Å"Germany Unity†- the joining of the German Democratic Republic (the â€Å"DDR†) and the Federal Republic of Germany (the â€Å"BRD†) on 03 October 1990- skewed this rule of thumb. After 45 years of communist rule in East Germany, many, many families had drifted away from religion altogether. So, in the former German Democratic Republic, you’re more likely to encounter individuals and families who don’t identify themselves with any church affiliation. Despite the rough geographic distribution of various religious adherents, many of the holidays that began as religious holy days centuries ago are still part of German culture, regardless of location. â€Å"Fasching†- also known as Karneval, Fastnacht, Fasnacht, Fastelabend- begins either a 11:11 on 11 November or on 07 January, the day after the Feast of the Three Kings, depending on your locale, and runs until Ash Wednesday (der Aschermittwoch), the beginning of Lent- the fortyday period of fasting and abstinence immediately preceding Easter. Knowing that they will have to set their frivolity aside during Lent, people party extensively; perhaps to â€Å"get it out of their system† (verrà ¼ckt spielen). The celebrations are mostly local and vary from village to town to city, but inevitably culminate in the week leading up to Ash Wednesday. Participants dress in outlandish costumes, prank one another, and generally try to have a frivolous time. It’s mostly harmless, playful, and inconsequential silliness. For example, Weiberfastnacht is the Thursday before Ash Wednesday, usually in the Rhineland, but there are pockets of Weiberfastnacht all over. Women kiss any man who catches their fancy, snip off their ties with scissors, and end up in bars to laugh, drink, and recount the day’s exploits. There are parades of various sorts and sizes over the weekend before Easter weekend. Costumes abound, groups strut their stuff (â€Å"stolzieren ungeniert†), as they say, with lots of good-humored hooting and hollering. Rosenmontag, the Monday before Ash Wednesday, has the most extravagant carnival parade in Cologne, but very respectable rival parades also take place throughout the Rhineland, all of which the German television network broadcasts, not merely nationwide, but to other Germanspeaking areas, particularly in Austria Switzerland. The next day, Fastnachtdienstag, additional parades take place, but the focal point of this day is the so-called burning of the â€Å"Nubbel†. The Nubbel is a straw-filled figure- a scapegoat- that the merrymakers fill with all the sins they committed during the carnival. When they burn the Nubbel, they burn their sins away, leaving them with nothing to regret during Lent. After sacrificing the Nubbel and not wanting to waste a good Lent at their disposal, the revelers once more start partying into the wee hours of the night just before Ash Wednesday, in hopes of having something about which they can be a bit contrite, even remorseful. This attitude is in keeping with a very human exchange Luther had with Philip Melanchthon, one of Luther’s companions and an early Protestant theologian. Melanchthon was a rather circumspect man whose unwavering mien annoyed Luther from time to time. â€Å"For goodness’ sake, why don’t you go and sin a little?† urged Luther in exasperation. â€Å"Doesn’t God deserve to have something to forgive you for!† For the record, Martin Luther was a rather lusty, earthy monk who, after the Catholic Church excommunicated him, married and commented several times about how delightful it was to awake to find â€Å"braids on the pillow† next to his. Luther would have loved and sanctioned the very ethos of Fasching, for he said â€Å"Wer nicht liebt Wein, Weib, und Gesang, Der bleibt ein Narr sein Leben lang.† (â€Å"Who loves not women, wine, and song, Remains a fool his whole life long.†)

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

A Single Case Evaluation of the Link Between Stress During and After Yoga Practice

A Single Case Evaluation of the Link Between Stress During and After Yoga Practice This is a description of a single case evaluation examining a relationship between stress during a test before practicing yoga and after practicing yoga. A single case evaluation is defined as a time series design used to evaluate the impact of an intervention or a policy change on individual cases or systems (Rubin Babbie, 2014). Stress during a test will be lower if the student participates in yoga on a daily basis. The observable indicators for my independent variable in the single case evaluation would be negative. It is negative because there is a significant problem present. In considering operational definitions some students not that practitioners might rely on the client’s complaint that a particular problem requires attention. Practitioners are using an operational definition that is they are persuaded to work on a problem on the basis of their observation of the extent of the client’s expressed difficulty or dissatisfaction with the problem. Thus, they could take prepared measures simply by having the clients indicate daily on a belief scale the degree of difficulty they felt they experienced with the problem that day (Rubin Babbie, 2014) For the case of my single case evaluation (stress levels during a test before and after yoga), the stress test could be used to test the level of stress in a person. The test would be done before the academic test. I would then participate in yoga and see if my stress levels go down before taking another academic test. Sources of Data When considering alternative sources of data (available records, interviews, self- report scales, or direct behavioral observation) (Rubin Babbie, 2014) Sources of data for my particular case would be the stress test or even direct behavioral observation in direct behavioral observation I would participate in self- monitoring where I would observe how I am feeling after participating in yoga before my test. Triangulation Triangulation is the use of two or three indicators. It refers to situations in which researcher are confronted with a multiplicity of imperfect measurement options, each having advantages and disadvantages. To maximize the chances that the hypothesized variation in the dependent variable will be detected, the researcher triangulates measures more than one measurement option is used (Rubin Babbie, 2014) In the case of my evaluation of stress during a test before doing yoga and after doing yoga the evaluators could also look at how hard the class is and also see if there is other factors stressing the student out that caused the high stress levels before the test. Data quantification procedures Frequency distribution is description of the number of time the various attributes of a variable are observed in a sample. Magnitude is the size or extent of something. Duration is the time in which something occurs. For my case I could use many of these terms. The one term that can be applied the most is duration. I could look at how long before the test does the stress occur and even examine how long the stress last. Baseline Baselines are control phases of repeated measures taken before an intervention is introduced. Ideally should be extended until a stable trend in the data is evident (Rubin Babbie, 2014). Five days leading up to the test the student had high levels of stress. There was a steady trend of stress. After the stress level test (the cardiac test) the levels of stress decreased. The test that I would be using to test the level of stress would be the cardiac test. The cardiac test consist of someone running on a treadmill as the level of stress is being calculated on a monitor. Intervention When looking up the definition of intervention variable the book referred me to mediating variable. Mediating variable is the mechanism by which am independent affected a dependent variable (Rubin Babbie, 2014). When it came to the intervention variable (yoga) my stress level dropped from a 4 to a 5. It stayed consistent on a 4 after my intervention was added. Visual Statistical The stress level before and after yoga was very similar. There was some changes, but not a change that was that noticeable. My intervention of yoga was not affective for the level of stress while taking a test. Substantive There really was no change in my numbers. The stress level did not decrease that much after the student participating in yoga.

Saturday, November 2, 2019

Product Reliability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Product Reliability - Essay Example 56)†. In today’s development of industrial products, reliability concerns are not addressed properly in the prior steps of the process (Prabhakar and Osteras 121). The reliability of the products also depends on two manufacturing items: the technical decisions made in the early stages and the consequence of commercial results in the final stages. An engineer can employ effective methodology for reliable performance and specification in order to make a better decision. Product reliability develops a structure that joins reliable specifications, both design and materials, and product performance in the manufacture of new product products (Prabhakar and Osteras 81). Product reliability depends on the design, material used for a product and the manufacturing process. Design refers to the  act  of creating a layout or convention for constructing an object or system as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawing, business process and circuit diagrams. It may also be d efined as a strategy employed to achieve a unique goal or expectation. Potential Stages for Design Reviews (â€Å"Blueprints for Product Reliability†) ... The term is sometimes used to refer to components with specific physical properties that are used as inputs in manufacturing of products. In this context, materials are the components used to make product – computers, cars, buildings etc. Some applications require a product to have specific types of material properties such as load resistant steels for bridges, cranes or buildings. Cars, for instance, use aluminum as it is light, so the car consumes less fuel, corrosion resistance and aluminum alloys are easier to manufacture and use. Polystyrene with the recycling code 6 or Styrofoam cups, plates, carryout containers is petroleum-based plastics. They can release potentially toxic breakdown products, particularly when heated. Ceramic, glass, paper or safer plastics like numbers 1, 2 or 5 are a better alternative. Using the wrong material can result in a catastrophic failure that can harm life or environment (Chitale 154). Product Life Cycle Cost Impact. (â€Å"Blueprints for Product Reliability†) Manufacturing is the process of producing goods for use sale using machinery, labor and tools. This term may refer to a series of human activity such as handicraft, or high tech, but is most used in reference to industrial production, where raw materials are turned into finished products on a large scale. The finished products can be used  to make  more complex products such as household appliances, aircraft or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers who then sell them to end users. Manufacturing has many categories such as casting for engine blocks, molding for beams, forming as in press for panels, machining for drilling and