Saturday, August 31, 2019

How does Priestley express ideas about Eric Birling in ‘An Inspector Calls’ Essay

Eric’s Drinking One explanation for Eric’s drinking perhaps is the hypocrisy of his family, and Eric feels he has to join in with the male dominated culture in society. For example when Gerald suggests he is going to be careful Eric expresses his amusement; â€Å"Eric suddenly guffaws. His parents look at him† this is the strongest suggestion yet that Eric is aware of Gerald’s affair, if not the exact specifics. When asked by Sheila what was causing his amusement Eric replies; â€Å"I don’t know – really. Suddenly I felt I just had to laugh† this shows how Eric defends the male and shows how Eric has to defend the male power not the female power. This could suggest that the hypocrisy of Gerald who is highly esteemed by his family had led to Eric’s frustration and led him on a path to alcoholism. Eva’s Sacking + Capitalism Eric clearly shows much more sympathy to Priestley’s views than that of his father. Discussing Eva Smith’s death, Eric suggests; â€Å"Why shouldn’t they try for higher wages? We try for the highest possible prices? †¦ you said yourself she was a good worker† this shows how Eric is questioning not only the decision making of his father but also Mr. Birling’s view on society. Mr. Birling is a keen advocate of everybody â€Å"looking after himself† but when a lower class workers attempts to improve their life changes Mr. Birling is contradictory and fires Eva. Showing how Eric’s rhetorical question of â€Å"Why shouldn’t they try for higher wages?† shows how Eric is almost representing Priestley’s views of the selfish, aggressive form of capitalism, which Mr. Birling represents. Affair When Eric’s affair comes to light, his choice of language leaves ambiguity to the reader about the nature of Eric’s affair. Did Eric force himself upon Eva? Or was Eric showing sympathy and attention to an innocent girl? Eric states to the inspector; â€Å"She wasn’t the usual sort. But – well, I suppose she didn’t know what to do† by suggesting she wasn’t â€Å"the usual sort† suggests that it is Eva innocence and desperation that causes Eric to be attracted to Eva, this could lead us to have sympathy for Eric. As if here were to see Eva not purely as a prostitute but also as somebody who can change and reform shows a more sympathetic side to Eric; that everyone can change. However the ambiguity comes from the statement â€Å"well, I suppose she didn’t know what to do† this sounds strongly like rape from Eric. That he has clearly forced himself upon her with Eva not knowing how to react. Again highlighted in the following remark â€Å"Yes, I insisted – it seems† again suggesting how Eric was the one dominating the situation. Although Eric’s guilt is evident when he tries to express doubt on his wrongdoing with the quote â€Å"it seems† showing how Eric is not comfortable with the sin he has committed. If this were to be the case it paints a much darker picture of Eric; suggesting he had no genuine car for Eva, but was only interested in the need to fulfill his sexual desire. Sexism/Prostitution Eric’s relationship with Eva continues to lack any real substance and highlights Priestley’s thoughts that woman have little choice about their choices in order to survive. As Eric continues to describe his relationship with Eva he describes â€Å"And this time we talked a bit† for a couple to only â€Å"talked a bit† is hardly a romantic statement, and suggests that Eric pretty much had sex with Eva straight away. The fact that Eric also couldn’t â€Å"remember her name or where she lived† shows how from Eva’s point of view Eric was someone who was abusive with her, and didn’t seem to look after her. The only reason for Eva to continue to associate with Eric would be because of the extreme poverty she faces; and showing how despite the abysmal way she is treated she has no choice but to accept the dominance of men. Learning His Lesson After the Inspector has left, Priestley does give the reader an opportunity to take a more optimistic view about what Eric’s future may hold. After his mother has condemned Eric outraging; â€Å"I’m absolutely ashamed of you† Eric’s reply shows a sign of maturity and of a genuine capacity to change responding, â€Å"Well, I don’t blame you. But don’t forget I am ashamed of you as well – yes both of you† the fact that Eric is now admitting shame on himself could suggest he is now in the frame of mindset to change his ideals and values. The way Eric also condones his parents also sounds remarkably mature saying â€Å"But don’t forget I am ashamed of you as well† this shows how Eric is condemning his parents in a very authoritative way, and turning the tables on his parents using mature demeanour. Eric continues to ridicule his parents, particularly expressing doubts over his father’s viewpoints. In one of his final lines Eric remarks; â€Å"You told us a man had to make his own way†¦and then one of those cranks walked in – The Inspector (laughs bitterly.) I didn’t notice you told him it’s every man for himself† the way that Eric uses repetition of his fathers notion about â€Å"every man for himself† shows how Eric ridicules Mr Birling’s views on Priestley’s behalf to show how many of the beneficiaries of capitalism believe in that principal; except those who need to be looked after the most. The message from Priestley that no matter how flawed or wealthy the character everybody has the ability to change.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Types of Aphasia

Aphasia is a communication disorder. It's a result of damage or injury to language parts of the brain. And it's more common in older adults, particularly those who have had a stroke. Aphasia gets in the way of a person's ability to use or understand words. Aphasia does not impair the person's intelligence. People who have aphasia may have difficulty speaking and finding the â€Å"right† words to complete their thoughts. They may also have problems understanding conversation, reading and comprehending written words, writing words, and using numbers.What Causes Aphasia? Aphasia may also be caused by a brain tumor, brain infection, or dementia such as Alzheimer's disease. In some cases, aphasia is a symptom of epilepsy or other neurological disorder. What Are the Types of Aphasia? Expressive aphasia (non-fluent): With expressive aphasia, the person knows what he or she wants to say yet has difficulty communicating it to others. It doesn't matter whether the person is trying to sa y or write what he or she is trying to communicate.Receptive aphasia (fluent): With receptive aphasia, the person can hear a voice or read the print, but may not understand the meaning of the message. Oftentimes, someone with receptive aphasia takes language literally. Their own speech may be disturbed because they do not understand their own language. Anomic aphasia. With anomic aphasia, the person has word-finding difficulties. This is called anomia. Because of the difficulties, the person struggles to find the right words for speaking and writing.Global aphasia. This is the most severe type of aphasia. It is often seen right after someone has a stroke. With global aphasia, the person has difficulty speaking and understanding words. In addition, the person is unable to read or write. Primary progressive aphasia. Primary progressive aphasia is a rare disorder where people slowly lose their ability to talk, read, write, and comprehend what they hear in conversation over a period of time. With a stroke, aphasia may improve with proper therapy.There is no treatment to reverse primary progressive aphasia. People with primary progressive aphasia are able to communicate in ways other than speech. For instance, they might use gestures. And many benefit from a combination of speech therapy and medications. What Are the Symptoms of Aphasia? The main symptoms of aphasia include: Trouble speaking Struggling with finding the appropriate term or word Using strange or inappropriate words in conversation

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Construction of a runway Essay

A runway is a defined as a paved or clear land or strip prepared for landing and take-off of a plane. Majority of the runways are built but some are natural surfaces. Reckless construction can lead to a number of losses, putting human lives at stake and even damage of property. The construction of a runway is important and steps and procedures should be followed to ensure successful construction. Some of the important steps include; the length of a runway and the marking and lightings. The length of a runway is manly affected by the types of plane that use the runway and the altitude. Larger aircrafts such as passenger planes require longer runways and smaller ones such as private jets can be accommodated by shorter runways. At a higher altitude these runways are designed to be longer due to the reduced density of air which decreases the engine power. If it’s a fully operational and international airport it would require a longer runway that would accommodate the number of planes that would be constantly streaming in and out. CITATION Jef l 1033 (Jeffrey Price) The markings and lightings of a runway are important since they enable operations at night or when there’s low visibility. The lighting systems such as strobe bars or light bars are installed at the far end of the runway or synchronized flashing lights installed at each side of the runway path. These would aid the pilot in landing and help him not to sway from the main landing path. CITATION Je f l 1033 (Jeffrey Price) After full consideration and implementation of some of these procedures, one can be able to successfully construct a functional, efficient and manageable runway Reference 1033 Jeffrey Price, Jeffrey Forrest. Practical Aviation Security: Predicting and Preventing Future Threats. n.d.†¦/construction-equipment-dictionary-airport-construct†¦ Source document

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Mining industry Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Mining industry - Research Paper Example As such, when looking at the relationship between these two countries, there will be no doubt to mention of the tension between the local laborer and the immigrant. Immigrant labor is the type of labor that occurs when individuals depart from their mother country to another country in search of better terms of labor and improved standard of living (Brakman, et al 2007). In other words, it means the movement of people from their homelands into a new place in search for employment on both temporary as well as a permanent basis (Debrah 2002). For a long time, the perception was that when people move, it is because they are attempting to escape harsh conditions back home because the land that they are headed to is perceived to be at a higher level development wise than their homeland. In other words, it is the movement of labor from an underdeveloped economy to a developed one (Debrah 2002). Nowadays, this will not always hold water because there are cases of people who move from the developed countries into the developing world still in search of greener pastures (Tang 2000). Coming back to the topic at hand, the relations between the Chinese and the Australians can be looked in terms of the terms of employment of the host country in comparison to the home country (Morrow 2012). Also of importance is the matter of the problems that arise from the movement. When looking at the working conditions at the mines, it is clear that these were not the best places to be. A lot of the work that was given to the Chinese was in the form of menial tasks such as ‘running’. This involved the taking of the empty cars to the white miners or even descending deep into the mines to dig for gold or coal (Walker 2008). The fact that the Chinese were willing to earn less than the white miners is rather in dispute. It was the only choice they had (Walker 2008). A Victorian newspaper, at the time, suggested the setting aside of inferior diggings for the Chinese since

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Integrated Marketing Communications Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Integrated Marketing Communications - Essay Example These marketing mixes will adopt and modify the product, the price, the place, packaging, the people and the promotional elements in to a combined mixture that will best suit the needs and desired of the consumers in each targeted segment. To ensure that consumer choose the company’s product from available alternatives, the first step it to gain a position in the consumer’s mind. This position in the mind of the consumer should be a favorable image of the product that would influence the consumer choice. Therefore positioning becomes a critical aspect of the strategic marketing process. Effective positioning can be achieved through conveyance of the desired image of the product to the consumer through an effective promotional mix. Branding is the key vehicle that would carry the elements of the promotional mix to the mind of the consumer and mediums of promotions should be treated as the roads through which this brand â€Å"vehicle† can travel to reach the â€Å"destination† that is the mind of the consumer. Successful branding and positioning depends on how the company link all aspects of marketing communications to convey the same desired image. In today’s market, consumers are becoming more and more sophisticated in terms of their needs. With the diversity of the global consumer as well as the global suppliers, the markets become more and more complex where the organizations need to identify the specific customer groups, which is to be focused upon to maximize both efficiency and effectiveness. It is of utmost importance that a firm use its segmentation and targeting process to drive the positioning strategy so that there is a cohesive and integrated approach to the total marketing strategy. However in the process of targeting a consumer group with specific product or service solutions to meet their needs, the organizations should

Monday, August 26, 2019

Health Care Management HA330 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Health Care Management HA330 - Essay Example Lastly, it discusses the skills needed for leaders in health organizations. In the words of Eric and Steven, Strategy is defined not as an event but as the roots of the structure of an organization (Steven G. Hillestad, 2004). In health organization, strategies which are relevant to the changing work environment are adopted. There are various strategies to choose from. These could be: In the 21st century the future of health organizations is totally dependent on how well they adapt to current changing environment. Because of the rapid growth in population the best approach to strategize health organizations is by improving their internal capabilities and personal performance. A health organization is a service based organization therefore its main strength lies in the quality of its service. The better services they offer the better reputation they command. For this it is important to improve on internal capabilities and performance levels. They should focus on the health organization’s hygiene. Providing the patients with perfect hygiene is very important. The news about infections generated due to unhygienic hospitals has always made it to headlines. Technology has taken over most health organizations today. Thus, it is highly recommended that health organizations are abreast with the latest technology . They are updated with the latest data and the latest equipments for treatment are in place. Technological procedures like MRI, CT scans and other surgeries are expensive. However these procedures should be incorporated as they produce efficient results. Survival today is not only what people look for but the quality of life they are offered along with the opportunity cost (Patrick, 1993). Along with the introduction of technology performance maintenance criteria needs to be practiced. The staff needs to get training sessions to get familiar with the machines before experiencing it on humans. Number of studies carried out in Canada

Apple logo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Apple logo - Essay Example I saw this logo when I was given an opportunity to use a personal computer. The logo was integrated with this personal computer as a remarkable way of ensuring branding strategy. Over time, there were various modifications on the logo especially on its colors depending on the marketing proposition or product message. However, these modifications have nothing to do with my first thought and the association I created about Apple Incorporated with an apple designed with a bite. As for me, the apple designed with a bite represents innovative ideas. What makes it more positive is that I considered that the company is trying to imply a message that consumers should bite into these innovative ideas. Therefore, the company is trying to project itself as a significant source of innovative ideas. Line, shape, texture and color are basic design elements (Landa, 2010). In the case of apple logo of Apple Incorporated, there was a great role played by color. As observed, black and white would make a contrasting effect. For instance, placing the apple with a bite in a dark background and highlighting this image with an effect of a light color would signify the shining innovative ideas of Apple Incorporated. In this case, the significance of the right choice of color would primarily give substantial effect on the actual graphic design. In the case of Apple Incorporated and its logo, a two-dimensional perspective is enough or necessary to be used as a graphic technique in order to elaborately expound the company’s ideas. As stated earlier, my personal impression about the company logo of Apple Incorporated is associated with biting into innovative ideas. As for me, this logo exactly fits with the actual competitive strategy of the company as it continuously create highly differentiated products that are cutting-edge technology with high intensity of innovative touch. The logo can

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Research Paper Example The poor usually undergo a lot of stress, which lead to change of eating habits; they eat more while bored and angered. In conclusion, obesity can be reduced among the poor if better living conditions are provided and inflation rates brought down. Introduction Obesity refers to a situation in which a human body accumulates a lot of fats that end up with adverse effects. Obesity is measured using the body mass index (BMI). Therefore, individuals are considered to be overweight when their body mass index is between 25 and 30, but any person whose BMI is above 30 is said to be obese. Normally, obesity is associated with too much consumption of calories accompanied by little amount of exercise. Additionally, several other factors are to contribute to obesity, for example, age, gender, medication, health conditions, and environmental factors, emotional and physical activities. It is evident that when people grow older their metabolic rates reduce; therefore, they should take different kin ds of food. Young people have a lot of energy to break down the calories, which is why obesity cases are rare among them as compared to those in their 40s. In terms of gender, research shows that women are prone to obesity than men (Sutton 2005). This is because men burn up a lot of calories while resting. It has also been established that when women reach menopause, they tend to gain more weight because they experience a decrease in their metabolic rate. Research also indicates that genetic makeup of an individual can contribute to obesity. If a person’s biological mother or father is heavy, there is about 75% probability of the sibling being overweight. This is unavoidable because one is born with those genes. With the changing lifestyles, people tend to eat a lot of junk food leading to them being overweight. Working schedules have interfered with the normal functioning of human bodies because many people seat for longer hours in the office. Emotional issues influence eati ng habits; emotionally disturbed individuals tend to eat a lot hence poorly manage their weight. Anger and boredom also believed to cause too much eating. Ill health can also cause obesity because of hormonal changes, which slowdown metabolism (Sutton 2005). Depression and some mental diseases can also lead to too much consumption of food. While, under medication, some individual can gain weight because of the drugs they are subjected to, for example, antidepressants and steroids. Obesity can be treated through physical exercises, using foods with low fat content and high fiber; a balanced diet is emphasized. Changes in lifestyles and reduction of psychological disturbances, as well as, taking medications can reduce obesity. Several negative effects are associated with obesity for instance high blood pressure, diabetes and disease of the heart. Moreover, cancer has been associated with obesity; uterus, breast and gallbladder cancer in women while prostate cancer in men. Because a lo t of weight exerts stress on the joints, the hips and knees suffer. Many people view that obese individuals are not attractive; therefore, they undergo stress because of rejection and criticism. Recently, it has been found out that the poor get obese too. Therefore, this paper seeks to identify the reasons behind obesity among the poor (Sutton 2005). Body Over the years, poverty is said to a major factor towards obesity. Inflation and high food prices will

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Analysing Online Consumer Shopping Motivations For Luxury Products Research Paper

Analysing Online Consumer Shopping Motivations For Luxury Products - Research Paper Example Each day more and more people take the leap to purchase online. Several organizations desire to capitalize on the growing momentum of the online revolution. According to Javadi & et. al., as compared to physical outlets, online stores possesses a number of unmatched benefits. They are much expedient than physical outlets and allow customers to save time on traveling or waiting lines. Online stores remain accessible at any time and provide customers with rich information regarding different products and services offerings. In present days, online customers possess a greater extent of control along with bargaining power in comparison with physical stores because online medium renders more interactivity between customers and product or service providers. Online shopping has shifted the balance of bargaining power in favor of the customers because it has become quite convenient for them to make comparisons and assess different alternatives without being pressurized by the sales persons. Online shopping facilitates to minimize the transaction expenses along with providing benefits for both customers and suppliers. Consumer behavior is regarded as the dynamic collaboration of thought of persons and its effect. It is determined as the procedures and the activities people involve with while searching, purchasing and evaluating products. As stated by Perez-Schafer, there are three key domains which can define purchasing behavior of consumers. Fig 1 depicts the three vital domains of consumer behavior. ur. Fig 1: Three Domains of Consumer Behaviour Source: (Perez-Schafer & et. al., 2007, p. 2) Consumer Affect and Cognition: Consumer affect denotes consumers’ feelings and emotions. Emotions are collaboration between thought and physiology. These emotions generate different feelings amid consumers such as fondness, disliking, satisfaction, pleasure and sadness among others. On the other hand, cognition commonly refers to the rationale of people. It is a mental process of understanding, assessing, planning, determining and thinking. These feelings, emotions and cognitions are related with each other and determine consumer behaviour by a considerable extent (Perez-Schafer & et. al., 2007). Consumer Behaviour: Consumer behaviour denotes physical activities of consumers which can be directly perceived and measured. Usually, different perceptions of people generate explicit behaviour amid consumers. The traditional model of purchasing procedure was usually followed by single explic it behaviour. However, in present days, the purchasing procedure involves multiple behaviours comprising interaction between thought and perception (Sukato & Elsey, 2007). Consumer Environment: Consumer environment signifies external constituents that affect purchasing behaviour. These constituents comprise physical objects such as products and outlets, longitudinal relationships such as store location and social comportments such as

Friday, August 23, 2019

Effects of Organic and Conventional Management Practices on Soil Assignment

Effects of Organic and Conventional Management Practices on Soil Quality - Assignment Example The different crop management practices involved in conventional farming that include mixing of soil by tillage frequently and then leaving the soil exposed during significant periods of time lead to rising oxidation of organic matter and also reduces the levels of organic matter significantly thereby increasing the risks of soil erosion (Glinski, Horabik & Lipiec, 2011, p.527). It was during the 1990s that the crop management practices involved in conventional farming were questioned owing to the heavy use of chemicals. These chemicals had the potential ability to cause environmental degradation (Hunter, 2004, p.45). Studies have revealed that the quality of the soil under such farming practices have been poor thereby increasing the costs of the products as well as health. Considering these effects the long term sustainability of the conventional farming has been questioned against the alternative practices being available. Indirect costs including the offsite damage from erosion of soil, pollution in the surface and ground water, hazards to health of both human and animal, and damage to wildlife from conventional farming practices are at the moment tolerated by the humanity (Reganold, n.d.). Conventional farming has proved to have certain negative effects of the quality of the soil. Owing to the exposed nature of the soil, the productivity of the soil tends to get reduced due to wind and water erosion, compaction of soil, soil organic matter getting lost, accompanied by losses in water holding capacity and biological activity.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Love fashion Essay Example for Free

Love fashion Essay In the early 90’s, Kate Spade began what would soon be an illustrious career that spurred thousands of women into a deep love affair with handbags and accessories. Born Katherine Noel Brosnahan in Kansas City, Missouri, Kate is a journalism graduate who began to love fashion at her job in Madamoiselle magazine. Being adept at her work, Kate quickly rose as the senior fashion editor of accessories and in her six years of working at the magazine, Kate saw a need for practical yet stylish handbags for ordinary women. Realizing this need, she quit her job in 1991 and went on creating her own line of handbags. With her husband Andy Spade, who became the creative director and advertising manager, Kate Spade hand bags, was born. The secret behind Kate Spade are the classically shaped bags that were extremely appealing to a wide class of women. Kate Spade Hand bags are lauded for its simplicity in construction, elegant and timeless designs and enduring quality. At the start of their company, Kate and her husband Andy first created six simple shapes that emphasized utility, color, and fabric. These original boxy designs would eventually be the building blocks of an empire. Since then, more variety was created using innovative fabrics and vibrant colors with inspirations from the op art movement of the sixties. Kate Spade easily became a fashion staple all over the world. [1] From the bag revolution that Kate Spade initiated, the company went on to produce other accessories as well. Today, the company prides itself with well crafted shoes, accessories, apparel, jewelry, baby items, fragrance, glasses and even a paper line that included stationery, organizers and pencil cases. Kate Spade at home is a collection that includes wallpaper, bedding, china, bath items, and other various items for the home. The company also launched kate spade beauty along with Estee Lauder in the spring of 2002. [2] Kate Spade is highly patronized by celebrities and models such as Vikki Eichmann [3] and Taylor Swift [4]. Even Sarah Palin, amidst the election ruckus, is spotted wearing Kate Spade shoes [5]. The ever famous bags have also made their way into TV series such as Just Shoot Me [6] and the more recent and widely popular Gossip Girl with Blake Lively. [7] References [1] http://www. katespade. com/ [2] http://www. top-fashion-designers. info/kate-spade. html [3] http://www. observer. com/2007/spokes-models [4] http://www. iheartthat. com/2009/01/29/taylor-swift-in-kate-spade/ [5] http://coolspotters. com/political-figures/sarah-palin/and/shoes/kate-spade-gesture [6] http://www. twirlit. com/2008/11/25/kate-spade/ In the early 90’s, Kate Spade began what would soon be an illustrious career that spurred thousands of women into a deep love affair with handbags and accessories. Born Katherine Noel Brosnahan in Kansas City, Missouri, Kate is a journalism graduate who began to love fashion at her job in Madamoiselle magazine. Being adept at her work, Kate quickly rose as the senior fashion editor of accessories and in her six years of working at the magazine, Kate saw a need for practical yet stylish handbags for ordinary women. Realizing this need, she quit her job in 1991 and went on creating her own line of handbags. With her husband Andy Spade, who became the creative director and advertising manager, Kate Spade hand bags, was born. The secret behind Kate Spade are the classically shaped bags that were extremely appealing to a wide class of women. Kate Spade Hand bags are lauded for its simplicity in construction, elegant and timeless designs and enduring quality. At the start of their company, Kate and her husband Andy first created six simple shapes that emphasized utility, color, and fabric. These original boxy designs would eventually be the building blocks of an empire. Since then, more variety was created using innovative fabrics and vibrant colors with inspirations from the op art movement of the sixties. Kate Spade easily became a fashion staple all over the world. [1] From the bag revolution that Kate Spade initiated, the company went on to produce other accessories as well. Today, the company prides itself with well crafted shoes, accessories, apparel, jewelry, baby items, fragrance, glasses and even a paper line that included stationery, organizers and pencil cases. Kate Spade at home is a collection that includes wallpaper, bedding, china, bath items, and other various items for the home. The company also launched kate spade beauty along with Estee Lauder in the spring of 2002. [2] Kate Spade is highly patronized by celebrities and models such as Vikki Eichmann [3] and Taylor Swift [4]. Even Sarah Palin, amidst the election ruckus, is spotted wearing Kate Spade shoes [5]. The ever famous bags have also made their way into TV series such as Just Shoot Me [6] and the more recent and widely popular Gossip Girl with Blake Lively. [7] References [1] http://www. katespade. com/ [2] http://www. top-fashion-designers. info/kate-spade. html [3] http://www. observer. com/2007/spokes-models [4] http://www. iheartthat. com/2009/01/29/taylor-swift-in-kate-spade/ [5] http://coolspotters. com/political-figures/sarah-palin/and/shoes/kate-spade-gesture [6] http://www. twirlit. com/2008/11/25/kate-spade/

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

What Energy Drinks Do to Your Body Essay Example for Free

What Energy Drinks Do to Your Body Essay Introduction You are feeling tired and unmotivated what do you do? some people such as myself opt to purchase an energy drink(s) (I had a few while writing this speech) As students we sometimes need a little boost to help us study, many of you will opt to purchase energy drinks in this speech i will attempt to inform you on the effects energy drinks have on your body. Body First a little bit of history first ever energy drink was Lipovitan D 1962 invented by japanese company Taisho Used to keep employees awake well into the night First energy drink in US was Jolt Cola. Wasn’t really an energy drink at all, just a hyped up soft drink introduced in the 80’s added a lot of sugar and caffeine Some Ingredients and what they do Caffeine works by blocking the effects of adenosine, a brain chemical involved in sleep. Glucose A from a sugar, is a primary source of energy, energy drinks contain double the recommended daily amount. Ephedrine A stimulant that works on the central nervous system. It is a common ingredient in weight-loss products and decongestants, but there have been concerns about its effects on the heart. Taurine A natural amino acid produced by the body that helps regulate heart beat and muscle contractions. Many health experts arent sure what effect it has as a drink additive. Ginseng A root believed by some to have several medicinal properties, including reducing stress and boosting energy levels. B-vitamins A group of vitamins that can convert sugar to energy and improve muscle tone. Guarana seed A stimulant that comes from a small shrub native to Venezuela and Brazil. Conclusion I hope this speech has helped you better understand the effects energy drinks have on our bodies, health and well the next time you decide to drink an energy drink think about what you are really drinking. Works Cited Watson, Stephanie. How do energy drinks work? 04 October 2006. HowStuffWorks. com. Web. 02 March 2013. Seifert, Sara M. , Etal â€Å"Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults† Pediatrics: Official Journal Of The American Academy Of Pediatrics. 3 (2011): 511-528. Web. 14 February 2011. Sifferlin, Alexandra â€Å"What’s in Your Energy Drink? † Time 04 February 2013. TIME. com. Web. 06 February 2013.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Concept To The Contemporary Security Agenda Politics Essay

The Concept To The Contemporary Security Agenda Politics Essay Is the concept of human security, which is the most controversial and debated issue in international organizations since 1994, simply hot air, as seen by its critics? Or does it contribute to the concept of contemporary security agenda where the whole world is increasingly interconnected (Paris, 2001). This paper introduces to the international theories which can help understand human security better and the extent to which human security contributes the contemporary security agenda. There is no single definition of human security as human security goes beyond traditional notions of security to focus on such issues as development and respect for human rights. Definition of human security remains an open question. The simplest definition of security is absence of insecurity and threats (Shahrbanou, 2004 cited in McIntosh, Hunter, 2004: 139). In context, to have security is to have freedom from both fear of psychological, physical or sexual abuse and from want of food, employment and health. Human security therefore deals with the capacity to identify threats and to avoid them when possible. It means to help people cope with the insecurities resulting from wars, conflicts human rights, violations or massive underdevelopment (Owen, 2004: 15). The on-going debate of human security among its advocates is that there should be a shift of attention from a state centric to a human centric approach to security. That is, concern with the security of state orders should give way to concern with the security of the people who live within those borders (McDonald, 2002: 279). Traditionally, in state- centric or realist view security means protection of sovereignty and territorial integrity of states from external military threats, rather than the protection of individuals (Newman, 2010: 85). By contrast human centric or liberalist view places individuals at their main priority and proposes some essential conditions, for example adoption of universal human rights to ensure the protection of the people. Thus in 1970s and 1980s, people responding to the Middle East oil crisis and the growing awareness of environmental degradation, began to think of security in broader, non- military terms. After the end of the Cold War, many scholars st arted to see state- centric security as essentially in narrow terms (Hough, 2004).Thus the concept of human security developed which attempted to redefine and expand the meaning of security. However, it does not challenge the relevance of state- centric arguments in so far as these concern the protection of the state from external military violence and accept the state as the main provider of security. Some analysts still argue that external military threats are bigger than ever in the post-Cold War era as there is no balance of power which for years ensured state and individual security (Hough, 2004). However, even if these threats are bigger at the moment, they definitely are not the only threat to the lives of people all around the world. Issues like environmental degradation, diseases, and famines are also huge threats affecting people (Shahrbanou, 2005: 30). Constructivism is also one of the theories in international relations which can be adopted as way of interpreting human security. It provides a useful framework for understanding the true nature of issues relating to human security such as race, class, violence and gender (Conteh-Morgan, 2005 cited in Tsai, 2009: 28). Constructivism can be found to be more beneficial in approaching the concept of human security, in contrast to structural realism. Constructivism believes that language, customs, norms and culture can change the behaviours and interests of people living in that country. Unlike realism, which sees anarchy as the inescapable outcome of self-help, constructivism sees it as state created which can be changed by state intervention (Wendt, 1992 cited in Tsai, 2009: 24). Onuf stresses on language and the role that plays in constructing human beings, interests and principles. He considers language and rules as the fundamental norm of constructivism, and regards the human being as the first point of research and the hub of human security. In the contemporary world with the growing knowledge, language has become one of the key elements of building human security. Onuf also stated that people use language to interpret the rules and therefore it is the most important way of constructing a society (Onuf, 1989). For instance, the on-going interaction of human society has been eventually generated into international norms (Bedeski, 2007: 46). Peter J. Katzenstein also challenges the traditional realist theories of security by emphasising the norms and culture of constructivism as his main concern in solving the human security issue in international relations theories. He states that the concept of culture defines the state actors in the system and the intera ctive associations among actors and society. Katzenstein asserts that culture can be defined by looking at the social customs and laws of that society (Katzenstein 2005: 6). For example, Due to the lack of knowledge of internal factors within the Soviet Union, neo-realism and neo-liberalism failed to predict the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. Thus culture can play a major role in influencing state actors, institutions and even respect for international law and human rights. More recently, analysts, following the United Nations Development Programmes (UNDP) 1994 Human Development Report and their notion of security as freedom from fear and want (Hough, 2004), have settled on the phrase human security to emphasise the people-centred aspect of these efforts. In 1994, Human Development Report (HDR) issued by the United Nations Development Programs (UNDP) presented a different philosophy about the integration of security issues and globalization. Thus, this report defined human security according to seven dimensions such as economic security, environmental security; personal, political, community, health, and food security .The report also adopted a people-centric security concept instead of the traditional state-centred concept (UNDP, 1994: 24-33). Realist would contend that the above list has clear military security implications. The report makes it clear that the real security protects individuals from threats such as disease, hunger, unemployment, politi cal oppression and environmental degradation (Tsai and Tan, 2007: 8-9). Due to the broadness of the concept, the human security includes both traditional and non-traditional elements of security (Paris, 2001: 88). On the contrary, to the critics, the concept and definition provided by UNDP is very broad. Gary King and Christopher Murray criticizes the overly broad and understanding of human security. By broad it means trying to include all the well-beings, which makes no sense. For example, the seven dimensions of human security defined by UNDP indicates a ray of dimensions centred on human-dignity, which are potentially interrelated and overlapped, and fails to provide a coherent construction with a single and integrated concept'(King Murray, 2002). For Roland Paris human security is nothing more than hot air. In his view those who support the concept of human security are the ones who want to keep the broadness and fuzziness of the concept just for their motive (Paris, 2001). Lincoln Chen has a similar opinion as well. In his view the concept is so wide and broad that it is difficult to make a choice which threat should be taken as first priority and which can be neglected (Chen Narasimhan , 2003). Deriving from the UNDPs interpretation of the human security concept and putting aside the differences between state-centric and human-centric positions for the moment, the meaning of human security is also contested by different schools of human security. The dispute over types of threats that should be included has divided advocates into the narrow and the broad schools. Mack, an advocate of narrow school, argues that threat of violence to people by the state or any other institution or a political actor is the proper focus for the concept of human security. On the other hand, Thakur a proponent of broad theory, asserts that human security is concerned with the protection of people from critical life-threatening dangers, regardless of whether the threat are rooted in anthropogenic activities or natural events, whether they lie within or outside states, and whether they are direct or definition of narrow school can be simplified as freedom from fear, similarly broad school can be de fined as freedom from fear but also from want which is also the focus of human development in UNDP Report (UNDP, 1993: 2). Japan promotes the human security idea of freedom from want whereas Norway, Canada and other members of the human security network promotes freedom from fear (Shinoda, 2007, Dedring, 2008 cited in Tsai, 2009).Thus Kofi Annan has pointed out the three pillars of this wider conception of human security, freedom from want, freedom from fear, and freedom to live in dignity. However, the differences between the two conceptions of human security can be exaggerated, as both perceive the individual as the main object of the security and stresses on safety from violence. Both of them even acknowledges the role of globalization and its changing nature of armed conflict that is generating new threats to human security, besides both calls for a rethinking of state sovereignty as an important part of promoting human security. Therefore, both the concepts overlap each other as here to a large extent. Seeking freedom from fear without addressing freedom from want would amount to addressing symptoms without the cause (Baylis, Smith, Owins, 2011: 483). With the on-going wars, conflicts and problems, human security also deals with issues like climatic change and environmental degradation as everything is interconnected with one another. Death caused by armed conflicts has declined in relation to other challenges to the safety of individual. Wars and violent conflict often leads to environmental degradation, economic disruption or levels of poverty. For example Vietnam War or the Gulf War in which Saddam Hussein burned Kuwaiti oil which ultimately led to air pollution and land degradation. Similarly, environmental problems also lead to wars and conflicts. Such as scarcity of resources in over populated countries like India, Pakistan leads to dispute. For example Indo- Pakistan dispute over the Wular Barrage. While no direct link can be found between terrorism and poverty, terrorists often exploit poverty and exclusion in order to tap into popular discontent -taking advantage of fragile states such as Somalia, or undemocratic regime s uch as Afghanistan in the 1990s, to plan violence'(UNDP 2005: 47). Poverty and lack of economic opportunity can also lead to terrorism. For example, Orissa in India is the perfect example of how poverty deprivation can trigger acts of terrorism, signifying how freedom from fear and freedom from want are intricately connected (Baylis, Smith, Owins, 2011: 486). In the contemporary world climatic change or natural disasters has also emerged as a human security agenda especially for the western countries. Potential disasters like global warming or tsunami pose a threat to individuals and societies around the world. Most scholars tend to view this challenge as a national security challenge rather than human security. However, climate change and natural disasters can be linked to human securities issues like state failure, food shortage, water crisis, which are genuine human security issues. Communicable disease like the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which alarmed the whole world in 2003 became the main issue of concern in the human security agenda (Curley, Thomas, 2004: 18). Diseases can travel rapidly across borders. It has become a major global issue and no country can protect the human security of individuals and communities within its national borders on its own. Another issue which falls under human security is protection of wo men against violence, womens human rights, gender inequalities in control over resource or inequalities in power and decision making. Recent conflicts have shown women as victims of rape, sexual slavery and torture. Such violence against women is now recognised as a crime against humanity (Rehn, Sirleaf 2002 cited in Baylis, Smith, Owins, 2011: 488). The aspect of human security has become irresistible nowadays .It deals with so many issues and it is so broad that it includes almost all type of human securities even if it is criticised over and over again. Weather viewed as freedom from fear or freedom from want, the concept of human security has not replaced national security. The Human Development Report estimates the rich countries of the world spend more in the military budget than in contentious issues like HIV/AIDS. However, it reflects a number of developments that have constantly challenged the traditional view of security as the protection of states from military attack. It originally began as a rejection of orthodox notions of economic growth in favour of a broader notion of human development, but now has been reinforced by new security threats such as genocide in the Balkans and Africa (Baylis, Smith, Owins, 2011: 491). Human Security has grown into an important aspect in the contemporary security agenda. Responsibility to protect is an issue that supports human security and its three practical objectives, the responsibility to prevent, reach and rebuild. It was developed in the 2001 report The Responsibility to Protect which was produced by Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. The commission argued that the primary responsibility to protect their citizens is in the hands of the state. If a state is unable or unwilling to do so or if they deliberately terrify their citizen then this leads to the international responsibility to protect the citizens of that particular state through humanitarian intervention. Development of this agenda for human security through the Right to Protection agenda is a point of debate and some contention (Gottwald, 2012: 9). Humanitarian intervention to protect state sovereignty is one of the most important attribute of human security. The concept of humanitarian intervention was endorsed by the report of the UN Secretary Generals High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. It was developed to help the state and its citizens from any threats external or internal. Despite the valuable articulation of such responsibility, Humanitarian intervention can always not be justified. An intervention can be manipulated and inevitably shaped by powerful actors. Skilled lawyers or diplomats can convince arguments, both for and against particular interventions, like they did in the case of Darfur (Bellamy 2010). Just by accepting the idea of human security and treating it positively, the state cannot be benefitted. They have to make certain effort to implement the human security concerns in its political practices (McDonald, 2002).Canadian government made the same move and exploited the state human security aspect. Canadas middle power status in the world system indicates that accepting the security theory of such agrees basically with its national interests. Based on the claims of Jockel and Sololsky, Canadas acceptance of the idea of human security altered the political nature of intervention. The Canadian government have continued to intervene in the name of human security anytime anywhere (Newman, 2001). As some scholars have already noted, there is risk in confusing the pursuit of human security concerns with the pursuit of traditional security concerns. NATO intervention in Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with as said was for the objective of preventing ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. However Ramesh Thakur argues that, it is still questionable that whether this intervention actually produced more damage than benefit (Thakur, 2002 cited in Glusac, 2010: 90).Noam Chomsky shares a similar view and sharply criticises the war against Yugoslavia. He believes that the bombing campaign only hastened the flow of refugees from Kosovo. The consequences of bombing campaign included the collateral damage in the form of refugees and long-term damage caused to the economy, which caused a creation of a state which ultimately became dependent on foreign aid. Multiple refuges, broken infrastructure, damage incurred by economy were the direct consequences of the bombing campaign (Chomsky, 1999: 81). Keeping this in mind, its difficult to say that the goal of human security was reached by this intervention. If we recall the seven dimension of human security that was pointed out in the Human Development Report, we can draw a conclusion that the bombing campaign has affected almost all of them, and surely not favourably. US invasion of Iraq can be another example of humanitarian intervention. Although US intentions for invasion were always unclear but when the post invasion period accelerated into the chaos the US raised the human security agenda as a justification for the war in Iraq, arguing that the US aim was to rescue the people of Iraq from the human insecurities caused by Saddam Hussein. However even USA did little to restore law and order through implementing pol justice procedure (Collins, 2007: 130). Therefore, if the goal of an intervention is to protect the human security and the avenue to achieve these goals are the same that affect the human security, then the question that should be asked here is whether we have chosen the wrong means. To conclude, Human security can be best understood under liberalists and constructivists theories. Realism therefore cannot be considered as the dominant theory of security. Human security has a long way to go before being universally accepted by everybody. The connections between wars, famines, disease, poverty and environmental degradation are still not understood by many, thus needs more clarification and explanation. Data from the Human Security Report Project shows there has been a remarkable decline in internal and global political violence since the mid-1990. If the world had to do without such aspect of human security, it would have been fairly difficult to deal the with the on-going security problems.

digital divide :: essays research papers fc

In this new era of booming technology and endless possibilities of what cyber space brings to our fingertips, leads us to question whether it depresses our economic and social stature. Over half the United States is now enjoying the online capabilities , while millions of people all over the world join the online community every year. With many businesses and schools relying on the Internet, it is important as basic phone service. Cell phones, computers, and plasma televisions are all taking us forward. But is this not a wellness for our society?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  First, we must look at the importance the Internet means for the industrializing and developing society. Technology is definitely a boost to an economy in any nation. In a society that lacks the skills of technological advances, might leap the country economically. With the Internet, nations who weren’t well educated or behind in knowledge will greatly improve with the added IT. Whether it is medical, political, or social countries will profit from the technology. The Internet Age is growing; I believe you will see more unity between nations.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In many ways we are tying to break the digital divide in our own nation. In February 2000, President Clinton proposed a new plan to help bridge the digital divide. Offering two billion dollar tax break to private companies, new teacher IT training programs, and Community Technology Centers in low-income neighborhoods . I believe the digital divide will fade over time. Technology will adapt to society not the other way around. The Internet is going the same route that telephones and television went. The Westernized cultures are breaking the digital divide every day. Nevertheless in countries not well educated the bridge will be harder to break driven issues such as poverty. Technology is propelling us into a new age of information.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Lorraine Hansberrys A Raisin In The Sun - Dreams Essay -- English L

A Raisin in the Sun - Dreams Dreams The play A Raisin in the Sun demonstrates the hardships and successes of the members of a black family living in the south side of Chicago during the 50’s. For the Youngers, dreams are life. They are what bring the family together and pull it apart throughout the play. Each member of the family has a particular dream, and each of those dreams is like a wall being built between its owner and various other members of the family. Everyone’s dream straddles the line between selfishness and goodness for the family; however, some, like Walter’s, seem to be pulled more by the gravity of selfishness. Both Mama and Ruth share the same dream, but each has a slightly different reason for her preference. Walter’s dream is the most apparent from the beginning of the play, and he presses his family and himself until he accomplishes his goal. Walter focuses so much on his dream, however, that he leaves no room for his family. One may ask, why is he so intent on his dream? Walter is out to prove something to himself, to his family, and to the world. He needs to show people that he is a man and is responsible. No one ever trusted Walter with anything important as can be seen when he says, â€Å"Ain’t nobody with me! Not even my own mother!† (Hansberry, 85). In all of his life, Walter was not allowed to grow into a man and bear the responsibility of his life and the lives of his family. Mama has always been the head of the family, and Walter never got the chance in his childhood to take responsibility with less important matters; therefore, when he is handed a check for $6500, Walter does what he never had the chance to do before. Walter’s father was a proud man who wanted his family t... ...s possessions in the minds of many people. They can tear apart a family like the Youngers, or they can grasp and control a mind like that of Walter. However, dreams are items not easily left behind, and if they were, what would become of the people who owned them? Dreams make up a part of the life of humans that without, who can say where life may lead a person. Probably nowhere. For without dreams, a human has no ambitions and no desire to make any impact upon the world. Without dreams the human race would be one of idle creatures that desire nothing more than to be like the cockroaches in this play, searching only for the necessities of life between periods of sleep. Maybe that would be better, though, for someone like Walter; after all, what has he done but be a burden upon society? Or will he someday succeed because of a dream, if only through his son?

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Women in the Second Industrial Revolution Essay -- Essays Papers

Women in the Second Industrial Revolution The Second Industrial Revolution had a major impact on women's lives. After being controlled fro so long women were experiencing what it was like to live an independent life. In the late nineteenth century women were participating in a variety of experiences, such as social disabilities confronted by all women, new employment patterns, and working class poverty and prostitution. These experiences will show how women were perceived in the Second Industrial Revolution. Women were confronted by many social obligation in the late nineteenth century. Women were living lives that reflected their social rank. They were expected to be economically dependent and legally inferior. No matter what class women were in, men were seen as the ones who go to work and make the money. That way, the women would have to be dependent since they were not able to go to work and make a good salary. No matter what class a woman was in, she could own property in her own name. When a woman became married she " lost control of any property she owned, inherited, or earned" ( Kagan et al. 569). A woman's legal identity was given to her husband. Getting a divorce was very difficult, most nations would not even end a marriage by having legal consent. Court trials were expensive which made it hard for a women to afford. Even if a divorce was granted the women would not receive anything. The children, land, house, and all of her belongings would be given to the man. If the father choose he could take the children away from the mother at any time and give them to someone else to raise and care for. The illustration above represents the typical appearence of a woman during the re... ...en started taking more of a stand on their beliefs. Women's movements started forming, which made it possible for women to get a higher education. Women became more intelligent and confident in their abilities to fight for more rights such as voting, higher pay in their jobs, and to be treated equally. Today women are the product of hard work and achievement and continue to gradually overcome their minority status. Works Cited 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Kagan, Donald et al. The Western Heritage Brief Edition. Prentice Hall, inc.1996. 7. Roberts, Nickie.Whores in History. Harper Collins, 1992.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Mcq International Payments

1. In the case of a â€Å"sight draft† A. the draft acceptance is after the shipment of goods B. the draft is presented to the buyer for acceptance when the shipment has been made C. the risk for the importer consists in the disposal of the unpaid goods D. the goods are available to the buyer before payment 2. It is not a bank draft A. promissory note B. checks C. money orders D. bill of exchange E. documentary collections 3. B/E represents: A. unconditional order in writing to pay a specified amount of money to a specified person or to the bearer, upon presentation of the bill at a specified future date B. n order given to the bank in order to pay a specific amount to a person from the company current account against the presented bill C. an order given by a person to its bank in order to pay a specific amount directly in the beneficiary’s account D. a written promise to pay a determinate sum of money made between two parties 4. This is not a benefit for the importer w hen he use a payment based on the letter of credit: A. reliance on issuing bank’s credit rather than buyer’s B. documentary evidence that the ordered goods have been shipped on time C. payment deferred until goods are shipped and documents presented D. ssurance that necessary clearance documents will be provided 5. A clean L/C means that: A. the L/C can not be revoked without the specific permission of all parties involved, including the exporter B. the L/C is issued by a bank and confirmed by another, obligating both banks to honor drafts drawn in compliance C. the place where the payment is realized by the exporter bank D. the documents are presented without other additional documents or notifications 6. In the case of open account payment A. the goods available to buyers before payment B. the risk belongs to the importerC. the goods are shipped to a buyer with a strong guarantee of payment D. the goods are available to buyers after payment 7. â€Å"Consignment† means that: A. the exporter retains actual title to the goods that are shipped to the importer B. an order given to a bank in order to pay a specific amount to a person from the company current account C. the goods will not be shipped until the buyer has paid the seller D. the goods are shipped to a buyer without guarantee of payment 8. The chief advantage in case of advance payment is: A. no credit extension required B. apital tied up until sales; must establish distributor’s creditworthiness need political risk insurance in some countries; increased risk from currency controls C. if customer does not or cannot accept goods, goods remain at port of entry and no payment is due D. lowers customer resistance by allowing extended payment after receipt of goods 9. The difference between a P-note and B/E consists on: A. the amount of money is well determined B. the maker of a P-note to personally pay the payee rather than ordering a third party to do so C. the P-note is more se cure than a B/E D. he issuer of a P-note is the exporter 10. The highest risk is in case of: A. sight draft B. time draft C. cash in advance D. revocable L/C E. open account 11. International payments A. require common payment procedures B. are always guaranteed by a different bank C. are less risky D. are more complex than local payments 12. Open account payments mean that: A. the exporter retains actual title to the goods that are shipped to the importer B. the goods will not be shipped until the buyer has paid the seller C. the goods are shipped to a buyer without guarantee of payment D. n order given to a bank in order to pay a specific amount to a person from the company current account 13. In the case of a letter of credit this is not an advantage for the exporter A. Reliance on issuing bank’s credit rather than buyer’s B. Payment protection C. Rapid, local source of repayment, if payable at a local bank D. Payment deferred until goods are shipped and documents p resented (use of funds) 14. â€Å"Check† means that A. the exporter retains actual title to the goods that are shipped to the importer B. the goods are shipped to a buyer without guarantee of payment C. n order given to a bank in order to pay a specific amount to a person from the company current account D. the goods will not be shipped until the buyer has paid the seller 15. This is not a problem when we pay using a letter of credit A. Stipulations concerning freight cost are unacceptable B. Price is insufficient due to Interest Rate C. Unexpected quantity of product D. Description of product insufficient or too detailed E. Shipping schedule is not met 16. The Red-Clause Letter of Credit it is used when A. the exporter, as beneficiary, offers its credit as security in order to finance the opening of a second credit B. beneficiary has the right to instruct the paying bank to make credit available to one or more secondary beneficiaries C. the bank on whom the draft is drawn co mmits to pay the face amount at maturity by stamping â€Å"Accepted† across the draft D. in case of an advance payment in favor of an exporter 17. The lowest risk is in case of A. cash in advance B. open account C. sight draft D. revocable letter of credit E. time draft 18. In the case of Documents against Acceptance A. the bank issues a commitment for a stated time period to pay a beneficiary a stated amount of money B. he buyer may only receives the title and other documents after paying for the goods C. the buyer signs a time draft for payment at a later date D. the buyer may receive the title and other documents after signing a time draft promising to pay at a later date 19. In international payments are not used A. payment instruments B. non – cash payments C. cash payments D. balanced payments E. payment techniques 20. Stand-by Letter of Credit is used A. shipping schedule is not met B. stipulations concerning freight cost are unacceptable C. when the export pric e is insufficient due to FX rate changes D. nly if the importer didn’t fulfill it’s obligations E. only if the exporter didn’t fulfill it’s obligations 21. â€Å"Cash in advance† means that A. the goods will not be shipped until the buyer has paid the seller B. the exporter retains actual title to the goods that are shipped to the importer C. an order given to a bank in order to pay a specific amount to a person from the company current account D. the goods are shipped to a buyer without guarantee of payment 22. In the case of Documents against Payment A. the bank issues a commitment for a stated time period to pay a beneficiary a stated amount of money B. he buyer may receive the title and other documents after signing a time draft promising to pay at a later date C. the buyer may only receives the title and other documents after paying for the goods D. the buyer signs a time draft for payment at a later date 23. â€Å"Money order† represen ts A. is a written promise to pay a determinate sum of money made between two parties B. an order given to a bank in order to pay a specific amount to a person from the company current account C. an order given by a person to its bank in order to pay a specific amount directly in the beneficiary’s account D. nconditional order in writing to pay a specified amount of money to a specified person or to the bearer, upon presentation of the bill or at a specified future date 24. It is not a document required in case of a letter of credit A. Bills of Lading B. Income statement C. Commercial Invoice D. Packing List E. Certificate of Origin 25. In the case of a â€Å"time draft† A. the goods are available to the buyer after payment B. the draft is accepted by buyer in the delivery moment of goods C. the time of payment is after the maturity of draft D. the draft acceptance is after the shipment of goods

Friday, August 16, 2019

Healthcare Finance in The United States of America

In United States the Congress had passed the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 or MMA and with this imposed a stoppage for 18 months on the starting of new physician owned specialty hospitals. At the same time, they also wanted to know the position regarding certain matters of physician owned heart, orthopedic and surgical specialty hospitals through MedPAC. The team visited sites, made legal analysis and met the share owners in these hospitals and finally presented a report to the Congress. It had also gone through the cost reports received from Medicare and inpatient claims of 2002, which was the most recent at that time. This will naturally form the basis of such hospitals being permitted or not. (Physician-owned specialty hospitals) The findings of this committee showed that:- Physician owned hospitals generally treated patients who had less severe problems and concentrated on specific diagnosis related groups and the reason for both of this was that these were expected to be more profitable than other patients. These hospitals do not treat as many Medicaid patients as community hospitals. Regarding the costs of patients in these hospitals for the patients, the Medicare patients did not get benefits of lower costs though the inpatients had shorter periods of stay. There was no appreciable impact of physician owned specialty hospitals on the community hospitals as seen in 2002, and there was also no impact on the financial performance of the community hospitals. Most of the differences in profitability can be rectified by improving the prospective patient system for inpatients that are made by Medicare. Thus according to the findings there are not major differences between the community hospitals and physician owned specialty hospitals in terms of costs or capability for services. (Physician-owned specialty hospitals) Differences among types of hospitals: We shall make comparison of the hospitals in India and USA. In India, apart from the government hospitals, there are a number of large hospitals run by trusts or large corporations. In the city of Bombay or Mumbai, the hospitals named Jaslok or Hinduja are run by trusts and Wockhardt Heart Hospital is run by a major pharmaceutical company. Even when the hospital has been promoted by a physician, still the hospital is run like a corporation as is seen in the case of Apollo Hospitals. There is now a new hospital named as Asian Heart Hospital in Bombay which has been promoted by a physician team and they have a large stake in the hospital. The team of physician is led by one Mr. Panda who is now the CEO of the hospital. These physicians have all invested their own funds, and to get more funds, they have even asked for more contributions from other physicians who are now not resident in India. The hospital is the result of a plan by these physicians in 1993-94. The hospital took about 10 years to complete. Thus one should realize that a hospital takes a long time to take shape up. (Doctors in arms) The biggest problems in the management of hospitals come from physicians and renowned physicians are sought for empanelment by hospitals. The physicians then continually force the hospitals to upgrade their infrastructure and also charge heavy fees from the patients. At the end of the services by the physicians, it is they who get the biggest returns. It is also difficult to retain the physicians as they leave at the earliest opportunity, and this statement is from one of the promoters of the hospital, GW Capital. They are now investing money in the concept of physician managed private hospitals. This resulted in its investment of Rs 150 million or about 3 million dollars in buying a 26 percent stake in another hospital group in Hyderabad, in 2000 called the Care Group. That group has expanded very fast and now has over a 1000 beds in its operations in six centers. (Doctors in arms) Thus the costs of the hospitals will require about 12 million dollars for a 1000 bed operation. At the same time, not all hospitals are made with money in mind and there are hospitals in Chennai or Madras in India which have 150 physicians, 500 nurses and 371 Para-medical staff. The entire team works within a budget of Rs 120 million or 2.4 million dollars. (Healing Ministry of the Madras Diocesan Medical Board) This hospital is run by a religious mission and its objective is to provide service to the people and this hospital does not want to make money, but run at break even costs. In United States, during 2002 there were 48 hospitals found to be physician owned hospitals. Of them 12 were heart hospitals, 25 were orthopedic hospitals and 11 were surgical hospitals. These hospitals are generally very small with average capacities of orthopedic hospitals being 16 beds, the surgical specialty hospitals being 14 beds and heart hospitals are the largest with average capacity being 52 beds. The general conditions of these hospitals are not full fledged as they do not have emergency departments, whereas 93 percent of the community hospitals have emergency departments. The reason for existence of these hospitals is the physician control over the hospitals. (Physician-owned specialty hospitals) At the same time, one of these hospitals has been named as one of country's top 100 heart hospitals. (Parkwest Medical Center) Financial position of private hospitals: According to available reports, the private hospitals are in a position to take on patients who are capable of paying for them, and not take on patients who have to depend on managed care organizations. This increases the incomes of the hospitals by 20 to 50 percent. This reduces the cost of a bypass surgery at one of the hospitals in India, Care to about Rs 80,000 or $1,700. The cost in India is higher by about 30 to 40 percent in corporate hospitals. Even the new hospital, Asian Heart has predicted a cash break even during the second year of operations, and by the end of the second year it expects to pay a 15 percent dividend to the investor. Thus on an investment of $50 million, the returns would be $7.5 million from the second year. (Doctors in arms) The position in United States is the same, and in spite of some private specialty hospitals not having made any distributions to stockholders, the study showed that the margin in these hospitals was about 13 percent in 2002 as compared to 3 to 6 percent that was seen for community hospitals. (Physician-owned specialty hospitals) The advantages of physician owned specialty hospitals: To find this aspect out, there were discussions with the physicians who were investing in these hospitals. The cardiologists and surgeons want to admit their patients, perform the required procedures and have the patients recover with minimum disturbance. They believe that community hospitals cannot match their services as those hospitals have a variety of services and missions that they have to undertake. The direct control by the physicians help to increase productivity through less disturbances to the schedules in operating room which come from the emergency cases that come about, decreasing the down time between operations between two different surgeries and this is due to cleaning the operating room more efficiently, increased ability to work between two operating rooms even when the operating rooms are blocked due to some other work and better efficiencies through direct control of operating room staff. As mentioned earlier, they also like to form specialty hospitals as they have increases in income. There is some increase due to productivity, but they are able to collect a share of the profits from the facility for themselves and other associated physicians. They concentrate on providing services that are profitable, on treating patients who are less sick and thus more profitable. (Physician-owned specialty hospitals) Even in India the same situation exists and most of the physicians who have now started developing hospitals have been working together earlier, and one of the main aims is to remove the pressure from managed health care systems that they have to face otherwise. There is now a distinct change in the formation of hospitals and new hospitals are being formed by physicians. The total costs have been discussed to some extent, but without the participation of physicians, the hospitals are unlikely to be successful.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

The Advancement of the Internet Technology

Information technology is said to be playing an important role in various sectors in a particular society these sectors may include the financial institutes, research institutes, learning institutions and other development sectors globally.The invention of the internet as a mode of communication has made every development successful since most of the developments require skills of using the internet and computers at large.It is therefore through the internet services provided that enhance the success of the people’s access on the present public service, library services and even marketing through the internet which globally referred to as the e-commerce.Research indicates that currently information is processed using computers and disseminated to the recipients through the internet, this internet technology is found to have improved the peoples understanding of information in many sectors of development.This idea brings in the advantage of using the internet technology to many people who are provided with material information on the electronic formats that have proved to be easy to get, revise, read and understand.Also this information is stored in large quantities which make it cheap and simple for the interested party in getting the specified to get it at once, compared to the process of going to libraries and reading a lot of books in order to get the required information (Connor, 1999)Therefore, for one to access the information provided on the internet the user is expected to enter an inquiry on the web form that is provided, after which it is sent to the web server, the web server then sends the question to the index server cluster which is meant to match the inquiry with the available documents.The match is then sent to the document server cluster that plays the role of retrieving the documents so that it can generate the abstracts and the copies of the information that is cached. Then finally the document is displayed by the web server to the use r where he is enabled to get the information required.This advancement of using the internet has basically enabled individuals to have a better access to good resources of the needed information. Research shows that by the use of computer technologies, preferable learning materials such as journals, newspapers, books and many academic articles can be obtained through the internet.This access to information through the internet is found to be the most important factor in many organisations, whereby individuals   have the sanction to store the retrieved materials using devices of storage.Such as flash disks and diskettes which enable them to retrieve and use the data easily compared to the early years where people used to keep so many books in their bookshelves and when the individual requires a particular information he was forced to through the whole lot of books s that he gets the information needed, this method actually proved to be time wasting and tiring . (Parries and Jeffay, Dec.2002)Under this technological advancement, we find that there are many developed web sites that are meant to allow many people to get access to many expanded sites that have new approaches of information regarding their area of interest.An example of these sites is the Google website, which is recognised globally and it is also said to be among the best search websites providing search services for the customers who are interested in getting particular websites; research indicates that google is the leading service provider to both the individuals and its customers applying the internet technology in their daily activities. (Knupfer and Muffoletto, 1993)  This google websites is specialised in the use of hypertexts, which is used where there have been an interest of putting the written literature into a computerised text that usually involve hypertext editing; through this we find that the text is always organised in a manner that particular initials are assigned to particula r literature matching with the users requirements for the resources According to research we find that.There are almost over two hundred thousand computer networks of the google company   which are spread all over the world, allowing many people to access it. Besides accessing files on other computers within the organization, an individual can run software located on all the computers that are enabled with the software.This therefore makes communication among the people easy and efficient, for this case we find that the hypertext matching analysis is always put in mind when the fillings of a particular information is being stored.The characteristics of a particular page such as the title, the font style and its content are proved to be very crucial in the matching of the hypertext. The other method used by google is the scalable core technology which was created with an objective of performing calculations for over ten thousand servers globally. (Knupfer and Muffoletto, 1993)Googl e has enabled its technology in finding the complex files through which the use files which do not occur by the use internet formats an example of such formats are the Microsoft word, the post script formats, rich texts among others.The services also offer a number of solutions to particular problems like the misspelling of words in the questions provided; this is actually used to enable the searching easier. (Parries and Jeffay, Dec.2002)The internet technology has brought in the use of electronic mail technique, which has brought an extreme change in the modes of communication.Here, we find that the costs that are always incurred when an individual conducting a particular research are reduced since moving round, calling through telephony technology and even writing letters to reach a person who may be having information on a particular topic of interest are avoided. The internet allows an individual to communicate to a number of people at the same time. (Connor, 1999)

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Cubism as a Modern Movement

Midterm Essay Exam Analytical & Synthetic Cubism and Modern Art Analytical Cubism, invented by Pablo Picasso and Georges Baroque, is the artistic style of creating shapes and details that represent an object or person. Braque's Violin and Palette (Figure 1 below) is a great example of Analytical Cubism. Baroque took an object, the violin, and broke it down into a series of shapes that merely represent what a violin is from multiple points of view. â€Å"l no longer believe in anything. Objects don't exist for me except in so far as a rapport exists between them r between them and myself.When one attains this harmony, one reaches a sort of intellectual non-existence what I can only describe as a state of peace which makes everything possible and right. Life then becomes a perpetual revelation. That is true poetry,† Georges Baroque. Figure 1, Georges Braque's Violin and Palette Synthetic Cubism, also developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Baroque, slowly got developed through an alytical cubism. They developed it by repeating analytic designs in their work thus generalizing the objects even more making them more metrically simple and flat.Collage was a huge part of the synthetic style, replacing painted objects with the actual object glues onto the canvas. Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning (Figure 2 below) is an excellent example of synthetic cubism. Synthetic cubism's use of art made by artists combined with art made by manufacturer and is often said to be the first Pop Art. â€Å"In Cubism, in the end what was important is what one wanted to do, the intention one had. And that one cannot paint,† Pablo Picasso. Figure 2, Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning Their are quite a few distinct differences between Analytical and Synthetic Cubism.The first and most relevant being the use of collage in synthetic but not in analytic cubism. For example instead of Picasso painting the chair caning into the painting of his Still Life with Chair Caning, he si mply attached it onto the the picture as if it belonged onto the canvas. Compare that to how Baroque made the violin in Violin and Palette, everything is painted onto the picture and is somewhat recognizable as the object from which it represents. Analytical Cubism still had an element of three dimensionality whereas Synthetic Cubism lost all sense of three dimensional space and was Just two dimensional and flat.Analytical Cubism also involved using muted colors so the focus was on composition and the change of perspective while Synthetic Cubism used bright colors as well as graphics, words, and other media. Synthetic Cubism also had much more distinct geometrical patterns and textures. Analytical Cubism paved the way modern art breaks traditional meaner of how things are represented. It abandons perspective and dispenses with realistic enduring of figures and objects and replaces that by making representational shapes in the composition. Background is blended into foreground.Synthe tic Cubism paved the way for Pop Art using other media based matter and integrating it into the composition. â€Å"Cubism paved the way for geometric abstract art by putting an entirely new emphasis on the unity between the depicted scene in a picture, and the surface of the canvas. Its innovations would be taken up by the likes of Piety Mandarin, who continued to explore its use of the grid, its abstract system of signs, and its shallow pace,† (Wolf). Cubism was the first step of modern art towards abstraction. Cubism focused on developing a way of viewing that reflected the modern age.Technological advances lead to the rise of this new style, with the invention of cars, planes, cameras, phones, sound recording and cinematography, artists needed a new way of conveying these objects and advances. Cubism directly influenced Futurism, Vortices, Supremacist, Constructivism, and Expressionism. Modern art's time period includes approximately from the sass's to the sass's, cubism t akes place in the early sass's so it falls into his time frame. Modern art is art that usually dissociates the traditional style of art and experimenting with new ways of seeing the world around them.Modern art moves away from the narrative and becomes more and more abstract. This clearly fits into the cubist movement the Picasso and Baroque created. The concept of Modern Art is based on the modern thought, character, and practice of Modernism. It developed from the rise of industries, rapid growth of city life, and first world war. Modernism reflects the rise of the changes in traditional thinking that were considered to be outdated, these include art, architecture, literature, religion, social structure, and daily life.This change in thinking resulted in the the gradual change to modern art and modernism. Both forms of cubism, analytical and synthetic, follow this practice. Seeing everyday life and life's objects and figures in a new way is what cubism is. Braque's violin in Violi n and Palette and Picasso Still Life with Chair Caning show this style of thought process. Braque's violin shows every view point and angle of a violin all at the same time, challenging the idea of traditional thinking.All of the above mentioned subjects reflect on how both analytical and synthetic cubism are a part of the modern movement and how the two are different from each other. They both challenge traditional thinking and art by changing the way the world is seen and what art can be. The differences between the two include execution, the use or disuse of collage, and the color schemes involved in both. Analytic cubism doesn't use collage techniques, has a muted color palette, and is more three dimensional. Synthetic cubism uses collage techniques, has more a more vibrant lour palette, and is very two dimensional.Both are a part of modernism and both heavily influenced many of the art movements that appeared later in the modern art era. â€Å"Cubism came about because, in the process of analyzing form, something that lay in the form, a plane, could be lifted out to float on its own†¦ † Joseph Plackets). Graphic Champs De Mars: La Tour Rouge. Robert Delaney Bibliography Baroque, Georges. Cubism Art Quotes. Picasso, Pablo. Cubism Art Quotes. Plackets, Joseph. Cubism Art Quotes. Wolf, Justine. 2012. The Art Story Foundation.

The Role of a Project Manager in All Atages of a New Computer Game Assignment

The Role of a Project Manager in All Atages of a New Computer Game Development Project - Assignment Example This research will begin with the statement that a project is a unique attempt at bringing a certain set of outcomes or items within well-specified parameters on time, costs and quality. Given this definition, a project is, therefore, a set of operations aimed at a certain goal. This set of operations can be considered to be a singular event with a distinct selection of activities that lead to a specific result. The planning, organization, coordination, and control of these activities are what is hence termed as project management. There are various kinds of projects that organizations and teams can undertake. The most common classification for business organizations places all projects under two categories; business process and information technology projects. Business process projects are intended to change or introduce a new business process into the organization with a little adjustment the information technology or systems in place while an information technology project may see k to overhaul the existing information technology and replace or upgrade it while still maintaining the structure of business operations that are already running. The ideal purpose of projects is to achieve a measurable goal. As such a project manager is put in charge of this role. He is thus responsible for planning the course of the project, organizing the various resources and activities across the project scope, directing the people who will be in charge of the activities and finally controlling the progress of the project towards its desired end result.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

The Extent to Which an Organization's Structure Not Only Shapes Its Essay

The Extent to Which an Organization's Structure Not Only Shapes Its Culture, But Also Its Ability to Transfor - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that a thorough literature review on the subjects of organizational structure, transformation and culture reveals a great wealth of information on the two subjects. Handled individually, it is evident that organizational structure and culture are quite important in the realization of an organization’s goals and objectives. Unfortunately, little has been done in covering and unearthing the relationship between structure and culture in an organization. Similarly, the relationship between an organization’s structure and its ability to transform and manage change has not been exhaustively discussed or debated. Notwithstanding the fact that the influence of organizational structure on culture and transformation has been overlooked in many studies and practical management of businesses, there exists a rather important interconnection between these aspects of an organization. However, it may be quite a difficult task to distinguish a n organization’s structure and culture since structure always operates within a business culture, implying culture and structure are quite intertwined. While culture refers to the umbrella issues and manner/patterns in which an organization operates, structure refers to the infrastructures, methods, and practices therein. The structure of an organization thus helps ensure that its culture is practiced and run efficiently and consistently. Given this important role of structure in shaping an organization’s culture and ensuring cultural consistency and efficacy, establishing good structures should be the hallmark of every organization. The structure therefore not only influences and shapes organizational culture but it is also an integral part of the culture. The culture of an organization is also a responsibility of its structure, which relates and deals directly with the settings of an organization’s culture. For instance, cultural issues in an organization such as the workings of the management, employees’ responsibilities and the handling of disputes and complaints are all directly tied to its structures and how they work. The main way in which structure affects organizational culture is through the role of structure in interconnecting the different groups/teams in an organization hence enabling them to work smoothly to realize organizational and personal objectives and progress. In this regard, the elements of structure most important in shaping an organization’s culture and its smooth operations include effective communication and coordination among employees and departments. Several theories have been developed to highlight the role of structure in influencing the culture of an organization. The first among these theories is the pre-bureaucratic structure. In this structure, an organization lacks the standardization of tasks and is mostly applicable to small businesses, which are adaptive and have no repeat scenario. The second structural theory is the bureaucratic structure in which larger organisations establish certain processes and procedures to help in meeting their objectives.

Monday, August 12, 2019

Gas price Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Gas price - Research Paper Example Introduction There has been a tremendous growth in the global trade in gas. In the past years, there was no advanced pipeline infrastructure. In this regard, gas trade only occurred regionally. However, due to the availability of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) transport capacity, international gas trade have become more popular (Siliverstovs et al, 1). Gas prices are of irrefutable significance to consumers and economies at the grassroots, state, and nationwide levels in the United States and overseas. Oil imports offer a noteworthy proportion of North America and Europe’s refined gas, nevertheless, the international oil market is disreputably unsteady, and can create unexpected â€Å"price spikes† or â€Å"price shocks† (Bomberg et al, 1). Thomas indicates that increases in the gas prices pose a great problem to the consumers in general as well as to the global market. In this regard, it can affect most individuals and families by increasing their budgets. In addit ion, the various aspects that lead to increases in gas prices may appear mysterious to many people (1). Determination of Gas Price The determination of gas prices varies according to various regions. For instance in Europe, the energy sectors set the prices of gas in a manner that prevents the consumers from diverting to the alternative fuel. They do this by setting the level of the price on a platform that places the two options on a complex price relation. The price for the gas manufacturers derives from the customer prices for the cheapest substitute fuel following the netback market value model. This means that the gas producers carry the burdens of the fluctuations in oil prices. These extended indentures comprise the prospect of price reconciliation to adjust to the oil price every three to six months (Siliverstovs et al, 3). Generally, lasting prices occur through a price band where manufacture and distribution cost delineate the floor, and substitute fuels in the power secto r the ceiling. If gas prices remain exterior to that band for a phase of some years, the effects will be either inadequate supply or sluggish market growth. Since different European nations and regions will have dissimilar gas delivery costs and diverse power generation options, price trends might fluctuate all through Europe (Stern, 31). Various economic aspects provide a strong correlation between oil and gas prices. Market behavior and changes in demand and supply assert that precedent changes in the oil price affected adjustments in the natural gas price (Villar & Joutz, 2). This correlation is evident since gas production occurs in relation to oil production, which depicts changes in oil prices pushes changes in gas prices. This correlation occurs in another level, which is through Gas to Oil projects. In this case, a gas producer may choose to either produce gas or convert the gas to liquid fuels, which might become transportation fuel (Stern, 24). Causes of Increasing Gas pri ce One of the major aspects that lead to increase in the prices of gas is the increase in crude oil prices accruing from augmented demand for crude oil. This causes augmented prices of natural gas manufacture and development, placing growing pressure on natural gas prices. The reason for this impact is that there is a competition between crude oil and gas operators for the same financial resources for instance drilling rigs and labor (4). A rise in oil price might cause higher levels of drilling or manufacture activities as

Sunday, August 11, 2019

Order vs. Justice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Order vs. Justice - Essay Example Hence, it is significant to re-assess the alternatives regularly. Bull envisions elements of war, transnational loyalties, and conflict posing a challenge to the stability of the international society. In effect, war can cause anarchy in the international relations. Similarly, transnational loyalties and conflicts can affect the degree of interaction among the states with shared interests and values. Bull points out that common rules and institutions should govern and guide countries in their pursuit of the international order. States have an obligation to respect the claims of independence of other nations. Respect for the nations’ independence is a fundamental principle for the formation of the international societies (1977). According to Bull, shared rules and institutions should inform the dealings among nations with an international agenda. The pillars of the international relations order encompass diplomacy, balance of power, and international law. It is important for the nations to embrace communication, enforcement, adaptation, and safeguarding of mutually shared and understood law. In my opinion, policy and regime change can affect the international relation order. Although shared rules, as well, as the institutions exist to preserve the order, policy can result in the different interpretation global relations. Notably, Bull does not take into account the role th e justice plays in the international relation

Saturday, August 10, 2019

Identify and describe a case for implementation of SAP Master Data Essay

Identify and describe a case for implementation of SAP Master Data Management at a four year university - Essay Example And Section table contains fields for Place, Time, Student ID, etc. whereas the Department table contains DeptID, Head, CourseID, etc. Also, the Pre-requisites table contains ID, CourseID, DeptID, etc. The University having different departments has a set of similar tables along with other tables, in each department’s database system. Although the data in it may vary, it is observed that there is some data across the departments that is the same for most of the time and does not change frequently, like the DeptID, Semester, Dept, CourseID, etc. Hence, it is created once and used many times over a period of time. Wikipedia defines â€Å"master data as the data used by different organizational components or by different systems that support an organization† (2009). Hence, DeptID, Semester, Dept, CourseID, etc. in the University database system constitute the master data and this data is common across all departments. However, as the different departments have their own database systems and tools, the format of the data may vary according to the department specific transactions and the master data referring to the transactional data thereby is contained in a different data record format in each database. This leads to multiple records for a single entity and creates excess data and data redundancy. To change the redundant data, multiple fields in the databases have to be changed which is time-consuming. Also, there is scope for human error and is difficult to maintain. Hence, maintaining the database in the different departments is time-consuming and costly. With more redundant data and accessing and changing it becoming time-consuming, entering transactions, data retrieval for analysis and reporting, and communication between the different departments becomes more difficult and confusing. Problems in data entry due to difficulty in