Thursday, October 31, 2019

Cell phones and brain cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Cell phones and brain cancer - Research Paper Example That is nearly one in two people in the globe have a cell phone attached to their identity. This statistic makes it clear that cell phones have become inevitable to our lives. A link has been identified between some kinds of electromagnetic radiation and some cancers. These forms of electromagnetic radiation include â€Å"ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and gamma rays. They are dangerous because they may break covalent chemical bonds in your body. Breakage of certain covalent bonds in key molecules leads to an increased cancer risk.† (Leikind) It is claimed that Radio Frequency (RF) waves employed by cell phones are not in the same grouping as these harmful radiations. RF is a type of electromagnetic radiation that falls between â€Å"FM radio waves and those used in microwave ovens, satellite stations, and radar†. (Leikind) Those who defend the safety of cell phones point out that the device does not emit ionizing radiation, which has the potential to create chemical changes to molecules in the human body. In other words, in the absence of ionizing radiation, the human DNA will not be damaged by cell phone usage. It is argued that cell phones â€Å"emit nonionizing radiation, which has lower energy and a longer wavelength than ionizing radiation. Nonionizing radiation is not strong enough to change an atoms structure, but it can heat tissue. The Federal Communication Commission (FCC) places a limit on the amount of RF energy that can be absorbed from a cell phone into the users local tissues--the specific absorption rate (SAR)--at 1.6 watts per kilogram (W/kg).† (Liberatore 70) Hence, those cell phone devices that abide by FCC regulation on heat limit should be safe for usage. This is backed by recent research evidence as well, which suggest that short-term exposure to cell phones might cause no harm whatsoever. But in terms of long-term usage, results from a review of 18 studies on cell phone use of

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Synthesis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 2

Synthesis - Essay Example reporter with the Associated Press, David Crary, brings to focus the conflict of interest that is linked with advertising particularly in relation to healthy living in his article: Group Wants Shrek off Anti-Obesity Campaign. All these articles focus on the different effects of advertising on the population, especially the advertising that does not focus on its effects on the population. The degree of increase in wealth as well as impact on culture that the international companies have attained in the past two decades can be linked to one innocent notion that was established by the management theorists which maintained that for businesses to succeed, they are to create brands but not products (Klein, 1999). Before this time, the main focus of the manufacturers was to produce goods and at one point, it was argued that the reason why the economy of America had not made a recovery from the depression was because the nation no linger knew the importance of making things. This has led to an environment that is full of advertisements which are meant to market all kinds of products by different manufacturers with the aim of increasing their market bases and making as many people as possible know about their existence. Various companies use different forms of advertising including mounting televisions in schools which has been done by Channel one with conditions that all th e teachers should air and the students have to watch the satellite broadcast programs that are aired every day (Baker, 2011). These broadcasts are filled with commercials that have been sanctioned by the schools and the company that is lending the television sets to the schools claims to have an audience that is more than fifty times that of MTV. It rakes in profits from selling two minutes out of every twelve programming minutes to commercials as well as in call contests. Some of these commercials include those that involve Shrek as the spokesman for an anti-obesity campaign. The advertisements that

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Modern Lifestyle Essay

Modern Lifestyle Essay The modern lifestyle has a number of advantages which includes easing peoples life, saving hundreds of peoples lives by the new development of medicine and vaccines. On the other hand different modern life style patterns have negative effects on health physically, psychologically, and socially. One of these modern ways of living is the high intake of fast foods. This is due to specific reasons such as the short time specified for eating and choosing healthy food. Lack of physical activity combination with fast foods leads to bad effects on the hearts health. Use of high technology machines is another way of modernity. Although use of these machines has helped in saving the time to do a lot of tasks, the wrong use of them will indirectly affect health. Another point is the advanced transportation which reduces the time needed to travel and made travelling an enjoyable time. Last, is the use of computers and internet in the communication, transfer of information, and entertainment as w ell. Altogether will constitute the elements of a sedentary life style. That means, high fatty foods intake and lack of physical activity. Which both are caused by fast foods, depending on high technology machines and transportation, and sitting long hours in front of the computer. Modern life style increases the risk of obesity. Consequently, leading to diabetes, heart diseases, and cancers. Pollution caused by the machines and advanced transportation causes different respiratory diseases. Furthermore, it leads to atopic diseases which are group of hereditary diseases contributing to allergies and asthma. Psychologically, persons are prone to increased stress level and depression. Social isolation will occurs due to spending long time on computer and internet. Effects of modern life style Nobody can ignore the usefulness of modernization on our daily life, especially on how much it makes life of humans easier. This is particularly correct about the new evolution of the new development of medicines, vaccines that save people from the fatal endemic diseases. On the other hand, Modern life style becomes more and more an important factor influencing health state of most developed countries. Unhealthy behaviors responsible for increasing the mortality of the cardiovascular, cancers, diabetes, and respiratory diseases. There is increasing evidence that following a healthy lifestyle including appropriate diet, satisfactory physical activity level, and healthy weight can provide significant cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. From that we come to a conclusion that different modern life style patterns affect our health physically, psychologically, and socially. The main life style patterns that are going to be discussed in this research are the use of high technology machin es, fast foods, advanced transportation, and the use of the computer including internet and video games that is being used by almost every member of the family. The way people eat today is far different the way people ate before. Hundred years ago people used to include a lot of fruits and vegetables in their diet. This gives a lot of nutritional value to their meals, and decreases the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases which is related to the less fat content of these foods. These days people have very bad nutritional habits, especially with the fast widespread of fast food culture particularly between young people which they continue to carry on the same eating habits in their adulthood. According to Shepherd et al. (2001), the promotion of healthy eating is high on the health policy agenda in the UK.They mentioned that young people are particularly important group, as poor eating habits established during teenage years may be maintained into adulthood, creating a number of cardiovascular and other health related problems later in life. Ed Edelson (2009) mentioned in his article that data from 2003-2006 shows that 11.3 percent of chil dren and teenagers were at or above the 97th percentile in body mass index for their age. This shows that overweight teens have a 70 percent chance of becoming overweight adults (Para.6).The reason for peoples poor eating habits is the less time provided by them to prepare a healthy food which probably would take time. Furthermore, people dont spent enough time to eat and choose correct and healthy meals. Everyone is just busy in building their future ignoring the fact that this might be interrupted by diseases caused by their poor eating habits. Other reasons include the need for both the man and women to join the work field. This means that the women will be away from home for long hours and depend on the fast foods to feed her family. Therefore, children will acquire this habit and they wont be able to differentiate between healthy and unhealthy food. In addition to poor eating habits, lack of physical activity is a major problem in this todays life. That is, if it is together pr esent with the high consumption of fatty foods, they will lead to disastrous effects on the persons health status. So, maintaining regular exercise is good for the well being of an individual health and helps prevent so many heart and metabolic diseases. The use of modern technology makes living better and brings certain advantages to people. Such advantages include fast communication and improvement of travelling. Before, people use animals to help them travel from one place to another which might take days to travel. Now, we spend only few hours using the air planes which make the journey easier. The use of new technology machines is also now in our home. We do most of the house cleaning with machines, which actually makes the life very easy. Every day a new machine is invented for human use to ease their lives. According to Emmanuel Mesthene (n.d.), Technology is neither good nor bad, it is neutral(page 12).This means that technology can bring us luxuries, but it also can cause problems. It is a matter on how the technology is used according to him. Computer and internet are being introduced into most houses. Although they have a lot of advantages, they have adverse effects on people health. Jayashree, 2007 said Internet has been perhaps the most outstanding innovation in the field of communication in the history of mankind. As with every single innovation, internet has its own advantages and disadvantages(Para.1). According to her the advantages include better communication, and faster way of getting information, and for entertainment. The internet has made the world smaller; it also provides services for people use. Children also now use the computers very widely. It is even being introduced in the teaching curriculum of majority of schools. They also use it in playing video games for their entertainment and joy. Even a lot of adults enjoy the video games as well. All of the past modern life style patterns lead to adopting sedentary life style which combines eating high calorie diet and lack of physical activity. Which are major risk factors for getting a lot of different diseases. In my opinion, sedentary life style includes the wrong use of available high technology machines and transportation as well. Physical effects of modern life style patterns especially the fast foods and the lack of physical activity increase the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases. Acharia (2007), wrote in his article Modern Life Style Could Damage Your Heart, The modern lifestyle, which puts people under constant stress, could severely damage major organs and lead to heart attacks, kidney disease and dementia(Para.1). Other diseases caused by sedentary life style include type two diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Doctors said that sedentary life style is a modifiable risk factor. This means that this risk factor can be prevented and changed by following a healthy life style. A healthy life style means healthy eating and regular exercising. Obesity, which is a major health problem of industrialized countries, is a result of following sedentary life style as well. A study done by Rodriguez,Nvalbos, Martinez, and Eschobar (2009), results shows that the highest levels of obesity associat ed with daily alcohol consumption, greater consumption of television, and sedentary pursuit. A lower prevelance of obesity is observed among those with active physical activity. (Para. 1) Pollution caused by the use of high technology machines and transportation contributes to many respiratory and skin diseases as well. Furthermore, Herbert et al. (2009) study showed that so-called western lifestyle may contribute to the development of atopic diseases. (Para. 1). Atopic disease means the hereditary tendency to experience immediate allergic reactions such as asthma or vasomotor rhinitis because of the presence of antibody in the skin or bloodstream. The effects of modern life style on the psychological status of people are still on research. But, most researchers agree that to some extent modern life style indirectly impact psychosocial life of individuals. Experts from university of Washington have warned that the way modern technology has been breaking peoples connections with the natural world may give rise to a major psychological problem. One of these effects includes increasing the stress level due to the so many obligations todays person might take. Even though some degree of stress might be useful in order to handle different problems we face every day. Chronic stress will have effects on the persons physical state as it will lead to many diseases. Raylopez, (2009) said in his article about causes of stress in modern life style In modern lifestyle, however, stressful stimuli are continues and stress is daily, so the pressure builds up and eventually causes damage to the body.(Para. 4). A healthy life style will have its positive effects on the psychological status of the individual which will directly affects his physical status as well. The use of high technology machines will reduce persons self independence and make him depend in doing his job on the machines. This will subsequently reduce the self satisfaction. As doing a job on your own will make you more confident about your abilities. Brendan, (2009) cited from lardies research findings in his article Depression Caused By Modern life style. Those findings are conclusive that depression primarily stems from modern living: social isolation, fast food laden diets, physical inactivity, sleep deprivation, and less exposure to the outdoors. (Para.6) .Depression finally will damage persons life physically and socially and will deprive him from his normal life. Socially, modern life style affects the social relationships very strongly. Especially with the use of internet to chat with others. People use internet messenger widely in their communication with others. This will lead to social isolation as a result of spending long time on the internet. As consequence, the person will isolate himself at home and deprive himself from family and friends social gatherings. Using the internet may lead to declines in visiting with friends and family. Irina, Robert, and Lee, (2004). They mentioned also that frequent internet use has negative social outcomes. They cited in their research the results of other research findings which includes; internet is associated with increases in depression and social isolation Kraut et al. (1998).(Para.3). Irina,Robert, and Lee, identified that frequency of internet use associated with declines in spending time with family and friends and in attending social events. (As cited in Nie et al. 2002). (Para.3). Conclusion To sum up, different modern life style patterns affects our health in different aspects physically, psychologically, and socially. I think that if the peoples awareness about these effects doesnt increase, this may lead to dangerous consequences in the near future. Adopting this life style patterns and especially sedentary life style for long time might threaten peoples life. If this happens then the community health will be affected and we will be having high percentage of diseased and disabled persons. Which finally reduce individuals productivity and development of their own communities. The best way for reducing the effects of these modern patterns of living is by educating people about its effects on their lives. Particularly concentrating in educating children as changing the way these children live will affect future generations coming after them as well. Another part of resolving the problem is the proper use of high technology machines and advanced transportations. Such prop er way means correct use in benefiting the humanity not affecting it and increasing the self dependency in doing different tasks of the day. Promoting healthy life style which includes proper eating, physical activity, and better way of communicating and socializing in the community will have its positive impacts. Furthermore, it will reduce the risk of getting so many diseases which cardiovascular diseases and cancers are at the top of them. Finally, maintaining peoples health is a primary goal of any country that probably would make her spend millions of dollars to achieve it as people are the real wealth of a country.

Friday, October 25, 2019

There are many differences between the two sonnets; the first difference :: English Literature

There are many differences between the two sonnets; the first difference is when they were written Christina Rossetti wrote Remember. For my essay I shall be comparing 2 sonnets, one written before 1914 and the other which was written after 1914. A sonnet is a poem but is sorted into two sections, the octave and the sestet. The octave contains eight lines and the sestet contains six lines, so altogether there are fourteen lines in a sonnet. In the octave and the sestet there is always a change of meaning. The first sonnet I am going to look at is "Remember" which is written by Christina Rossetti before 1914. This sonnet talks about death and love. In the octave Christina Rossetti is saying remember me but in the sestet she is saying forget about me, this is what is meant by change of meaning in the octave and sestet. The second sonnet I shall be looking is called "Sonnet" which is written after 1914. This sonnet is written by Edna St. Vincent Millay. "Sonnet" is about past love and not having anyone too love. In the octave she talks about the past but in the sestet she talks about the present. This is another demonstration of how the meaning has changed in the octave and sestet. The language used in "Remember" is very forceful as she repeatedly insists her partner remember her. She also covers the word death by using different phrases and metaphors like "I am gone away" and "silent land" this shows that she is scared of dying but has learnt to except it. "When you can no more hold me by the hand". This quote shows that the person Christina Rossetti is writing to is very close, considering that she is a Victorian lady she can not talk more intimately. Christina Rossetti uses phrases to make it no sound as bad "Nor I half turn to go, yet turning stay". This is letting her partner know that once she has gone she can't return. Another way Christina Rossetti covers up the word death is by saying "Remember me when no more". This quote is also being forceful as she is again insisting for her partner to remember her. In the sestet there is a change of meaning. "Yet", This shows that the writer Christina Rossetti has realised what the consequence could be if her partner decides to comply with her wishes in the octave, so she decides to change her mind and tell her partner that I'd rather you forget me and be happy than remember me and be sad, "Better by far you should forget and

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Conjoined Twins

Conjoined twins happen once in every 200,000 live births (Maryland). Conjoined twins are identical twins whose bodies are joined in utero. Most are stillborn and others are born with severe abnormalities that make living a normal life almost impossible. The survival rate of conjoined twins is between 5 percent and 25 percent (Maryland). The most common form of conjoined twins is thoracopagus twins. These types of twins share the same heart. Some of the other types of conjoined twins include omphalopagus in which the twins are conjoined at the lower chest but no heart is involved.Parasitic twins are when twins are asymmetrically conjoined. One twin is dependent on the larger twin for survival. Another type of twin is the craniopagus twins in which the skulls are fused together. Surgical separation of conjoined twins is a risky procedure and requires extreme precision. Success rates have been improving but it is still rare. Surgical separation is often the only way that the conjoined t wins can survive. The success rates of separation make it difficult though to make this decision. Separation often results in one or both twins deaths. This leads to the ethical dilemma on whether to separate conjoined twins.Recent research has found that the quality of life for conjoined twins is often higher than is commonly supposed. There have been many different controversial cases regarding the separation of conjoined twins. A noted case is the â€Å"Jodie† and â€Å"Mary† judicial decision. Jodie and Mary were a set of combined twins that were brought to the court of appeals in England. Mary was dependent on Jodie for survival because many of her vital organs were within Jodie’s skeletal structure. The twins’ parents were devout Catholics and were against the separation of the twins, despite the doctors wishes.The physicians decided to bring the matter the courts. The judicial decision was to separate the two and this ultimately led to Mary’ s death. Jodie survived and is still doing well after a year (Kaveny). The case of Jodie and Mary caused many ethicists to look at the ethical and legal issues regarding surgical separation. The article â€Å"One into two will not go: conceptualizing conjoined twins† responds to the judicial decisions following the surgery. The article discusses three conceptual possibilities. One possibility is that one twin is a person and the other twin is just an extra body.This allows for an easy decision which involves separation and the survival of one twin. Another possibility is that the two conjoined twins are two separate physical beings. A third possibility is that the twins are psychologically different people but they share the same body, so neither has rights over the body. Another article, â€Å"The Case of Conjoined Twins: Embodiment, Individuality, and Dependence,† Cathleen Kaveny analyzes the same case and discusses two different views of embodiment. The two differen t views are the â€Å"Bodily Distinctness View† and the â€Å"Bodily Relatedness View. Kaveny discusses both views and their role in making an ethical decision regarding separating conjoined twins. There are many reasons to keeping twins conjoined. Conjoined twins are two separate people with their own personalities. So much has been done to accommodate for their lifestyle and make it easier for them to live a normal life. The twins become close with each other along with their parents and others. If the twins are old enough, separating them can often lead to psychological issues from the separation and guilt that comes with losing a twin.Guilt and separation issues also happen with parents and those in charge with making the decision. Losing a child is extremely devastating and that is ultimately what the parents are doing. Most often one twin can survive but the other will die. The quality of life of the twins has to bad enough that risking one life or possibly two will be worth it. There are also many reasons for surgically separating conjoined twins. Conjoined twins often need to be separated in order to survive. Separating the conjoined twins can help to save one or possibly both twins. It is also allowing for one or both to have a normal, long life.Separation can guarantee survival for at least one twin which seems to be the most beneficent. A good quality of life for at least one person seems to outweigh a bad quality of life and possibly a shortened life of two conjoined persons. One ethical principle relating to the issue is beneficence. Beneficence means to do what is good. Beneficence is tough when it comes to the separation of conjoined twins because of the many issues that lie in the decision. The beneficent principle goes hand in hand with the utilitarian theory which is making a decision that brings about the most benefit to the most people.Both choices have beneficent aspects. Keeping the twins conjoined is good for the parents of the c hildren, the children, and anyone who is close with them such as family and friends. It can make them happy and help them psychologically. Separating the twins can be good for the parents and the twins if they survive and get to live a productive and good life. It also is good for the community to have someone who is productive and capable of taking care of themselves in the community. According to the beneficent principle it seems that separating the twins will do the most good for the most people.Another ethical principle relating to the issue is autonomy. Autonomy states that people should be allowed to reign over themselves and make their own decisions. This means that making a decision to separate the twins is up to the parents or the twins according to their age. This is one of the reasons that the ‘Jodie’ and ‘Mary’ case is an ethical issue. The debate is that the decision should ultimately be the parents due to the autonomy principle. The surgical s eparation of conjoined twins is a much debated topic on what the best choice is and who is ultimately in charge of making this decision.The decision will most likely never be made and it will be a highly debated topic for as long as conjoined twins are being born. Doctors, parents, and government officials will always be debating on whose decision it is to separate conjoined live twins. After doing research on the ethical issues surrounding the separation of conjoined twins, I have formulated many opinions on this dilemma. The best way to resolve the dilemma, I believe, is to leave the decision of separating conjoined twins to the parents or the twins. Taking the decision to the courts and trying to go above the parent’s choice seems ethically unfair and wrong.Leaving the decision to the parents seems to be the most beneficent and regards the ethical principle of autonomy. I am undecided on whether the best decision would be to separate the twins or keep them conjoined. There were many ethical issues surrounding this dilemma and the pros and cons for both sides were just too complicated for me to make a complete decision. The decision would be a tough one This conclusion was reached after reading the articles about the ‘Jodie’ and ‘Mary’ case and reading research on other cases. Both articles that I have chosen bring up many points regarding both sides of the argument.One article was focused on the choice of whether to separate conjoined twins or keep them conjoined and the other article discussed the ethical reasons on not allowing the parents to decide the fate of their own children. The success rates of separation are low but the quality of life for the separated twins is much more. Bibliography 1. Bratton, M. Q. , and S. B. Chetwynd. â€Å"One into Two Will Not Go: Conceptualising Conjoined Twins. † J Med Ethics 30 (2004): 279-85. 2. Kaveny, Cathleen M. â€Å"The Case of Conjoined Twins: Embodiment, Individuality, a nd Dependence. † Theological Studies (2001): 753-86

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

What Have You Found Interesting About Churchill’s Use Of Language In The Following Extract

The extract I have chosen to analyse is from the Methuen book, Top Girls, page 111 (When Mrs.Kidd enters) through until when she leaves towards the end of page 112. During this extract the audience is exposed to two major differing social classes. Mrs.Kidd is a vast contrast to Marlene, as she is very well spoken, whereas Marlene's language is a little less appropriate for the workplace. It is obvious that the two characters are of differing social classes, due to their names. Mrs.Kidd is the only person in the play given a surname, and her forename is Rosemary, which illustrates a middle class background. Marlene, on the contrary is a name more associated with working class backgrounds, as shown in a hit television series called, â€Å"Only Fools and Horses† in which a woman of working class background is represented. I think that the two woman represent the two main social groups of the nineteen eighties England, one a middle class housewife completely supportive of her husband and traditionalist views on ‘a woman's place' in society, and the other a working class career woman who has made her own way to success, without the aid of a man, she is in Mrs.Kidd's eyes anyway, â€Å"†¦one of those ball breakers/†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Mrs.Kidd's intentions are unclear to Marlene until she comes straight with it, she says to Marlene, â€Å"The fact is he's in a state of shock. About what's happened.† Marlene is surprised and doesn't understand what she means, until she explains exactly what she means, â€Å"I'm referring to you being appointed director instead of Howard.† Marlene replies to Howard's sleeping problems with sarcasm, â€Å"Has he thought of taking sleeping pills.† I think that Churchill implies that Marlene doesn't really care and that it isn't her problem. Mrs.Kidd then goes on to say that Howard deserved the job, because he'd, â€Å"†¦worked all these years.† Experience, however isn't as important in the modern era of work, when qualifications bear more significance on a job application than experience. Marlene refers to this as one of business' ‘little setbacks'. I think that Churchill attempts to make this line into a very poignant moment, as Marlene herself had a setback in the form of her daughter, Angie, whom she gave up to her elder sister, which enabled her to bounce back. I think that the poignancy would be lost as the conversation would be acted at a furious pace and the audience wouldn't have sufficient time to react and sympathise with Marlene. Marlene takes a very professional approach to the conversation, using formal language and keeping her cool throughout the conversation, and ensures that Mrs.Kidd lowers the tone, so that she cannot be reprimanded by her senior colleagues, for dealing with the situation incorrectly. Mrs.Kidd comes across as being very discriminatory towards her own sex, when she says, â€Å"What's it going to do to him working for a woman?† This question implies that Mrs.Kidd doesn't believe in equality in the workplace and again reinforces her middle class traditionalistic views on a woman's place in society. Marlene's reply is a controlled sign of her frustration at Mrs.Kidd's ignorance towards the state of the modern workplace. I think that Mrs.Kidd's next lines show that Churchill doesn't wish to show her as an individual, but more as a part or possession of her husband, Howard. Marlene sympathises with Howard, saying that she'll be tactful and pleasant, but for Mrs.Kidd, this isn't enough, she takes it too far by saying, â€Å"I think it is different, because he's a man.† I think that this bold statement enrages Marlene, but she manages to bottle up her emotions. I think this is also used by Churchill to display to the audience Mrs.Kidd's naivety to the modern workplace. Marlene appears beleaguered in her response, â€Å"I'm not quite sure why you came to see me.† As she feels that Mrs.Kidd has not achieved anything positive and has merely made a fool of herself and her husband. Mrs.Kidd appears to have realised that she hasn't achieved anything, and is almost giving up, when she says, â€Å"I had to do something.† I think that Marlene attempts to sympathise with Mrs.Kidd, when she says, â€Å"I'm sorry he's taking it out on you. He really is a shit, Howard.† Because she uses derogatory language towards him, I think she is blaming Howard and trying to tell Mrs.Kidd that it isn't her problem entirely, and that Howard needs to deal with his own problems. Mrs.Kidd then tries to deploy another weapon, emotional blackmail, she says, â€Å"But he's got a family to support.† Implying that they need the money more than Marlene, who is a single woman. Then she suggests that Marlene gives up the job, saying, â€Å"It's only fair.† I think this inference sends Marlene into a state of shock as she replies, â€Å"Are you suggesting I give up the job to him then?† Mrs.Kidd thinks that Marlene has finally taken heed of what she has said and that she has succeeded in her quest to gain her husband the job. Marlene becomes confrontational and has no time for Mrs.Kidd, when Mrs.Kidd says, â€Å"I'm not asking.† Even though she blatantly is, to which Marlene replies sarcastically and goes on to tell her that, â€Å"If he doesn't like what's happening here he can go and work somewhere else.† Mrs.Kidd now becomes enraged and starts hurling abuse at Marlene, but the language has no effect on Marlene, who eventually says, â€Å"Could you please piss off.† Although this is abusive, I think that Churchill wants it to have the effect of displaying to the audience that Marlene is in control of the situation and is very calm and calculating in her response. I think that this scene bears great significance on the play as it displays Marlene's professionalism and ability to cope with the workplace and problems. The extract also illustrates intentions of satirizing the middle class of the time and the Thatcherists, like Marlene.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

A Brief History of the Trebuchet essays

A Brief History of the Trebuchet essays Mans history can be traced biblically and scientifically. The bible records the slaying of Abel by Cain. From that point we are able to trace the progress of our warring ancestors by studying their artifacts and the written records of the bible. As man became more and more proficient in making war, we also became wiser in the means of defense. The defenders built walls and eventually fortified towns, requiring the aggressors to expand the best of their troops in attempts to overcome these fortifications. As a result, siege warfare-the art of quickly reducing a fortified town was begun and siege engines the beginnings of what we call artillery-were formed. The purpose of these siege engines was simply to knock things down. Defenders soon learned the advantages of war machines, as was evidenced during the siege of Syracuse in 212 BC with the aid of Archimedes, the Greek mathematician and inventor, the defenders of Syracuse reversed the usual procedure and used war machines against Roman besiegers. The trebuchet change the way that different countries and militaries of the medieval age attacked castles and rival countries. The trebuchet is an ancient siege engine used for throwing large rocks. It was invented in China in the 4th century BC, came to Europe in the 6th century AD, and did not become obsolete until the 16th century, well after the introduction of gunpowder. There are various kinds of trebuchets. The latest and best kind consist of a long pivoting beam, a very heavy counterweight swinging from a hinge at one end, and a sling with a big rock hooked to the other. A frame holds it all together and there is a track on the ground. When released, the weight drops, the beam rotates, and the rock slides down the track in the sling. When free of the track the sling rotates very quickly up and over the beam and slips off the hook. The rock spills out of the sling and flies away. Tr...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Basswood Tree Description and Pruning Info

Basswood Tree Description and Pruning Info Introduction to the Basswood Tree Basswood, also known as American Linden is a large native North American tree that can grow more than 80 feet tall. In addition to being a majestic tree in the landscape, basswood is a soft, light wood and prized for hand carvings and making baskets. Native American basswood is found on rich, wet soils of the central and eastern United States. In the landscape, is a very beautiful and large tree with a majestic oval canopy mounted on a tall, straight trunk. Mid-summer brings abundant clusters of aromatic, yellow blooms which attract bees who make a prized honey - the tree is often fondly called the honey or bee tree. Taxonomy and Species Range The scientific name of basswood is Tilia americana and is pronounced TILL-ee-uh uh-mair-ih-KAY-nuh. Common names include American basswood, American linden and bee-tree and the tree is a member of the plant family Tiliaceae. Basswood grows in USDA hardiness zones 3 through 8 and is native to North America. The tree is often used as a hedge but only in large tree lawns. It grows rapidly, is very large and needs plenty of space. The tree makes an excellent landscape planting with limited tolerance to urban conditions depending on the cultivar. It is a perfect shade tree and can be used as a residential street tree. American Linden Cultivars There are several great cultivars of American linden including ‘Redmond’, ‘Fastigiata’ and ‘Legend’. The cultivar Tilia americana ‘Redmond’ grows 75 feet tall, has a beautiful pyramidal shape and is drought-tolerant. Tilia americana ‘Fastigiata’ is more narrow in shape with fragrant yellow flowers. Tilia americana ‘Legend’ is a hearty tree with resistant to leaf rust. The tree shape is pyramidal, grows with a single, straight trunk, and with upright, well-spaced branches. All of these cultivars are great as specimens for large lawns and along private drives and public streets. Pests of Basswood Insects: aphids are notorious pests on basswood but will not kill a healthy tree. Aphids produce a sticky substance called honeydew which then introduces a dark sooty mold that will cover objects under the tree including parked vehicles and lawn furniture. Other attacking insects include bark borers, walnut lace bug, Basswood leaf miner, scales and Linden mite can all be troublesome problems. Disease: Leaf rust is a major defoliator of basswood but some cultivars are resistant. Other diseases that infect basswood are Anthracnose, canker, leaf spots, powdery mildew, and verticillium wilt. Basswood Description: Basswood in the landscape grows to a height of 50 to 80 feet, depending on tree variety and site conditions. The trees crown spread is 35 to 50 feet and the canopy is typically symmetrical with a regular, smooth outline. Individual crown forms are consistent with an oval to pyramidal canopy shape. Crown density is tight and the trees growth rate is medium to rapid, depending on the site condition. Basswood Trunk and Branches Basswood branches droop as the tree grows and do require some pruning. If you have regular walking and vehicular traffic, a pruning may need to be done for clearance beneath the canopy. The tree form is not particularly showy but maintains a pleasing symmetry and should be grown with one single trunk to maturity. Basswood Leaf Botanics Leaf arrangement: alternateLeaf type: simpleLeaf margin: serrateLeaf shape: cordate; ovateLeaf venation: pinnateLeaf type and persistence: deciduousLeaf blade length: 4 to 8 inchesLeaf color: greenFall color: yellowFall characteristic: not showy I explain some of these terms in my Botanical Glossary... Necessary Site Conditions The native American basswood grows best on moist, fertile soils where those soils are acid or slightly alkaline. The tree likes to grow in full sun or partial shade and is more shade-tolerant than oaks and hickories. The leaves will show some wilting and scorching after a long dry season, but the tree appears fine the following year. The tree is often found growing along creeks and streams but will take short periods of drought. The trees favorite habitat is on moist sites. Pruning Basswood American linden grows into a very large tree and demands space to develop properly. Naturally occurring trees need no pruning but branches on landscape specimens should be spaced by pruning along the trunk to allow for development to maturity. Removing branches with weak crotches and embedded bark is advised even though the wood is flexible and will not often break from the trunk. Plant basswood as a specimen or shade tree only on property where there is plenty of area available for root expansion. Remember to remove basal sprouts that are prone to grow off the base of the trunk.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Analytical Essay of The Castle

The film, ‘The Castle’, directed by Rob Sitch, is an Australian satirical movie about the triumphs of an ordinary working class family. It is a comedy, and foregrounds the importance of family and loyalty, which are considered important in today’s Australian society. Although the audience is positioned to feel sympathy for the Kerrigan family because of their unfortunate situation, their story is told in such a comical manner that the audience can’t help but find it funny. The story is told through the perspective of Darryl Kerrigan’s son, Dale, but so much emphasis is put on Darryl that it is clear that he is the star of the story. The film uses techniques like camera shots, language and the use of narration to develop conflict between a decent, old fashioned suburban family, the Kerrigans and seemingly evil corporation called Airlink. Feature films like ‘The Castle’ are cultural products because they use attitudes, values and stereotypes about what it means to be Australian. In this film, an Australian family living in their beloved home, situated at the end of an airport runway, are faced with a touch challenge as the faceless company Airlink threaten to take away their house, and the houses of their neighbours. Darryl Kerrigan (Michael Caton), the head of the house, is outraged, and hires a pathetic lawyer, Dennis Denuto, to help defend his and his friends’ homes. After a feeble attempt in court to convince the judge that the taking of their houses was, â€Å"against the constitution†, that it was the â€Å"vibe of the thing† their case was turned down, and all hope seemed lost. This caused great sadness within the Kerrigan home, and Darryl had fallen silent. After the Kerrigan family had completely given up, they got a knock at the door from Lawrence Hammill, QC who had met Darryl at the court house and felt empathy for his case. He told Darryl he would defend his case, free of charge, and they set their sights on High Court. This film was set in Melbourne, near the Melbourne Airport. The fact that the Kerrigan household is located so close to the airport positions the audience to think that the house is cheap and invaluable, which is emphasized when the audience is shown the huge power lines situated almost in the Kerrigans’ backyard, as well as the â€Å"dodgy† extensions on the house Darryl has done himself. This being said, Darryl loves his house, and couldn’t bring himself to leave it. ‘The Castle’ puts heavy emphasis on gender construction. The male roles in the movie are stereotypical. Darryl Kerrigan is a family man, which is shown when the audience sees the extensions on the house, and also when he stands up for himself and his family’s rights in court. Darryl is typically always thinking about projects he can begin, which is very stereotypical in today’s Australian society. Dale Kerrigan likes to go fishing with his Dad, which is considered a stereotypical male activity. The males in the film generally do the work and protect for the women of the family. The females are positioned to look as if they need to be taken care of. This film is full of stereotypes. Some of these are challenged, so as to avoid ‘The Castle’ becoming another clichà ©. One stereotype that is challenged is that of a wife; that she should stay at home, while her husband works. This is challenged by Tracey Kerrigan. She has her TAFE certificate of hairdressing, and works as a full time hairdresser. Although this stereotype is challenged by Tracey, it is perpetuated by Sal Kerrigan. She is the stereotypical housewife, and stays at home doing housework, cooking, and craftwork. Another stereotype perpetuated is the typical Lebanese man, represented by Farouk, the Kerrigans’ neighbour. His stereotype consists of talk about bombs and cash being carried at all times. This is perpetuated when Darryl and Farouk are talking about the aeroplanes flying overhead and lowering the value of their houses, and Farouk says, ‘Plane fly overhead, drop value. I dont care. In Beirut, plane fly over, drop bomb. I like these planes’ and also when he mentions, ‘You have friend, I have friend. My friend go to your house, put bomb under your car and blow you to sky!’ Darryl Kerrigan is seen as a stereotype from when he first appears on screen in a midshot, with a hose in his hand, wearing a flannelette shirt and jeans, and looking up at the powerlines situated behind his house. Throughout the movie he is shown as a strong and silent type, as is the stereotypical Australian man. The whole Kerrigan family, for the most part, perpetuate the stereotype of the typical Australian Family. This is shown in their closeness, their loyalty, and their willingness to help each other. Many people and issues are silenced and foregrounded in this film. Airlink and its opinions are silenced, so as to position the audience to view the company as faceless and evil. All the audience sees of Airlink are a few lawyers intent on taking the Kerrigans’ home away from them. In contrast, the Kerrigans opinions are heavily foregrounded. The audience sees all their emotions and arguments as they fight for their precious house, which encourages the viewers to feel empathy. Wayne Kerrigan’s opinions are also silenced. All the audience sees of him which may influence their empathy is the medium long shot of him lying in bed looking up at the photo of his family stuck to the wall. Class and power is shown in different ways throughout the film. Airlink’s power is shown through professional lawyers, in contrast to Dennis Denuto and his incompetence. This contrast is shown when one of Airlink’s lawyers walks into Dennis’ office, while Dennis is struggling with a broken copying machine, swearing, on his knees. Darryl Kerrigan’s power (within his family) is demonstrated in the way that Dale Kerrigan admires him, and focuses his story so much on Darryl instead of telling the story more from his perspective. Darryl is, as Dale says, â€Å"the backbone of the family† and this is shown as Darryl compliments his wife on her cooking each night, and encourages his family to do their best. Different class power discourses are shown throughout the film. The Kerrigans’ class discourse is shown in many ways. Speech is a main part of the discourse. While in High Court, Darryl’s outburst of â€Å"suffer in your jocks!† shows that he doesn’t know how to act in court, as higher class and more educated people would. Again this is shown when he is in court being represented by Dennis Denuto, and yells in excitement when he thinks he’s won the case. Even in the way he speaks, his thick Australian accent, and the way he uses colloquial terms shows the audience his class. Lawrence Hammill’s class is almost immediately known, though it isn’t directly shown when he is first shown in the movie. The audience realizes that he is of higher class than Darryl, because of his language, and by the fact that he doesn’t use colloquial terms. Throughout the film, different camera angles and shots are used to position the audience in different ways. For example, when shown Darryl’s Pool Room, close up shots of items on the walls and in cabinets (Tracy’s TAFE certificate, pictures and trophies) make it obvious to the audience what possessions Darryl treasures most. When Darryl, Dennis and Lawrence are standing in front of the High Court, before they go inside, the camera is angled upwards, in a medium close up, from the ground. This positions the audience to believe the three look ready, powerful and prepared. Another shot that positions the audience is the long shot of Darryl is admiring the power lines behind his house. This makes the power lines look bigger, greater, and more significant. The ideologies foregrounded in this film are those of the underdogs. If the directors were to show the ideologies and opinions of Airlink the audience may not have felt such empathy for the Kerrigans and their neighbours. The Kerrigan’s values are dominant in this film. They value family, loyalty, and justice. This is made clear by the way that the whole family sits down together to eat dinner each night, which is becoming more uncommon in today’s society. It is also made clear by how much time they spend together, talking, telling stories, and going on family holidays. Loyalty is shown by the way that Darryl unites with his neighbours, and cares about how they feel. An example of this is when Darryl tells them they need to get money together to pay to go to court, and how he offers to pay for Jack, because he is old and cannot afford it. Overall, this is a funny classic for all the family to enjoy. The use of foregrounding and silencing of opinions and ideologies positions the audience to feel strong empathy for the Kerrigan family, and encourages them to be on side with the family. The movie is a triumph of human spirit.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Proposal Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Proposal - Article Example Infringing products have consequently been targeted for a ban in the United States, including Samsung's front line, iconic Galaxy series phones. The message seems to be this, that Apple will protect its American turf from Samsung, which it views as largely copying Apple's designs and technologies for the iPhone. The peripheral goal, too, is to make sure that Samsung is put on notice as Apple brings the fight to other markets and legal jurisdictions the world over. There are big underlying logistics and design considerations that are tied to these battles, apart from the patents, but the patent front is the busiest by far, and most visible. This is owing to the fact that in the smart phone market, whoever holds the patents for key technologies and innovations have the ability to dictate the terms of their use. Meanwhile, what complicates the picture is that both rely on economies of scale and efficiency in parts production and sourcing. Moreover, tied to this, Samsung is also a suppli er of essential components of smart phones to Apple. This being the case, it is difficult for the two players to untangle themselves from the patent mess that they find themselves in. For Samsung it is a delicate balancing act, because as much as they need to compete in smart phones, they also rely on Apple to shore up their own components business, and losing Apple would amount to losing a valuable components customer. For Apple, the tussles with Samsung on the smart phones front highlights their need to find alternative suppliers for essential components (Lohr, 2012; Lloyd et al., 2011; Cromar, 2010; Gerardin and Layne-Farrar, 2011; Seppala and Kenney, 2012; Layne-Farrar, 2012; Boldrin and Levine, 2012; Siren, 2011; Gotts and Sher, 2012; Hagiu and Yoffie, 2011; Allison et al., 2012). Problem Formulation The literature review has highlighted the need for innovation around key aspects of technology, components, design, and software for both Samsung and Apple moving forward. Also, as far as Samsung is concerned, Apple's litigation win underscores the need to shore up Samsung's intellectual property portfolio in order to protect its smart phones business and to make sure that Samsung continues to dominate the market in the future. One key problem is that while Samsung has an enviable position as a key manufacturer of essential smart phones components, and benefits from scale economies by being so, its reliance on Android and its seeming problems with defending itself from intellectual property lawsuits from Apple and other firms makes it vulnerable. The problem is how is Samsung to position itself and to spend its money and resources so that it is able to get itself into a better position relative to the intellectual property battles it is engaged in with Apple and other firms (Lohr, 2012; Lloyd et al., 2011; Cromar, 2010; Gerardin and Layne-Farrar, 2011; Seppala and Kenney, 2012; Layne-Farrar, 2012; Boldrin and Levine, 2012; Siren, 2011; Gotts and Sher, 2012; H agiu and Yoffie, 2011; Allison et al., 2012). . Proposal This is a proposal that takes off from the problem formulation above, and tries to come up with a viable strategy for Samsung relative to its competitors in the global smart phones market. That strategy has to address the gap in Samsung's arsenal of patents related to innovations in basic technologies, components, and design, among other things. The proposal is to explore different strategic options

Economics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 1

Economics - Essay Example It was noted that ticket prices are relatively higher in 1978, wherein passengers disburse 19 cents per mile. As compared to the present price, which is 14 cents per mile, it is relatively higher. Thus, there is an increase in the influx of passengers (Bonsor, 2006). Airfare prices and travel time are considered the most important factors for passengers as compared to in-flight amenities. As William O’ Conner, an economist stated that â€Å"The speed, comfort, and safety aspects of the journey, whichever airline a passenger selects, are more likely to be the same† (1995). Thus, the amenities are not the priority of passengers in choosing the flight. People based their choice of flight on factors such as having the cheapest ticket price at the same time having the most convenient times of departure and arrival. The consequence is for airlines to increase the number of flights for a certain routes and maintain the price like the competitors (Kons, 2000). Reservation system serves a crucial role in an airline company. By being able to predict the passenger’s need and willingness to pay, the system sets up the scheme of pricing and setting from which passengers have no control on the differences the prices of tickets belonging t o even the same class (Watson, 2004). Pricing of airline tickets is a very complex process that is affected by various factors and considerations. These include the date of purchase and reservation wherein tickets bought several months before the flight schedule is normally lower in price than when it is purchased a day before the flying date. Normally these trend is known to the flying public and for those who wanted to grab these opportunity of buying cheaper tickets they will get one especially those people who travel regularly every week and month. Seat classification or the class is another factor being

The Role of Mobile Health Devices in Healthcare Research Paper

The Role of Mobile Health Devices in Healthcare - Research Paper Example With the expansion of mobile technology and through the advancement of 3g and 4g, mobile devices like PDA’s, phones, Nook, Ipad etc have transformed the fields of communication, healthcare, Information management, commerce and entertainment. As West points out in his research, with the growth of these technologies there was significant improvement in service delivery, in the way people interact, and they have also made business, entrepreneurs and organizations much more powerful (1). M-health is the name given for the practice of using mobile devices like mobile phones, tablet computers and PDA’s in health care. The m-health applications using mobile devices include collecting clinical and community health data, providing sufficient health care information for doctors, patients, researchers and also performing real-time monitoring of patients. These mobile devices have brought changes in the health care delivery and have brought better patient experiences. These technol ogy devices have been a real advantage in the management of chronic diseases. They can be used for reminding the patients to take timely medication, can be used to monitor health status of expectant mothers and elderly people and also could be used to extend the medical services in the areas which are underserved. Overall, these innovative mobile technologies have significantly improved medical system efficiency and have brought better health outcomes and reduced the cost involved. The various mobile technologies used in healthcare include mobile phones, PDA’s, PDA phones like smart phones, tablet e-reader/ media player like Nook Tablet ,handheld ultra portable computers like Ipads or tablet PC’s. A mobile phone or cellular phone can be used to receive telephone calls using radio signals. They also support text messaging. A smart phone is a cell phone which supports some additional features like internet or email. These mobile devices operate on

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Research paper Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Research paper - Case Study Example For each of these diseases a physical examination will have to be done to achieve a proper diagnosis of each. A 16-year-old female (Jesse) presented with her mother (Mrs. B.) at the doctor’s office. Jesse states that the following subjective symptoms that she is experiencing included feeling extremely tired and fatigued, lack of appetite. In fact, she appears to have ‘tomato red cheeks’ as if someone slapped her. She also states that she has had a fever for the past 24 hours. According to the Mrs. B, she gave her daughter Tylenol for the fever, and noted that it was effective for a short period. She also revealed that they had just moved to California three months ago. Moreover, the patient had recently begun working as a teacher’s helper in a preschool. At the school a number of students had not reported to school due to a rash outbreak. In addition, Jesse also revealed that she had her period (menses) one week ago. Her mother asks a question about her own health for she happens to be five months pregnant. The three differential diagnoses that this patient could be suffering from are Mononucleosis, Fifth Disease, and Kawasaki’s Disease. This 16 year old female is exhibiting prodromal symptoms (symptoms that occur before the actual onset of the disease) of these three diseases. Three Differential Diagnoses for this Patient Diagnosis- Characterized by malaise, anorexia, chills and fever which is a prodromal symptom, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy. Occasionally, the disorder comes on abruptly with high fever. Seek help when severe pharyngitis lasts for five to seven days. Only 90% of patients suffer from lymphadenopathy even though the patient shows no signs at this moment. Rashes that appear look like Rubella when it may appear. Although the disease is common with teenagers it also affects the elderly and the symptoms and management are the same. Screening- Most

Arranged marriage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Arranged marriage - Essay Example According to various anthropologists along with sociologists, marriages reveal the relationship between emotion, privacy, sexuality and ideologies creating a bond between a man and a woman. They also affirmed marriage to be a social institution which attempts to establish broad assortment of social norms that promote ethical behaviors in order to protect the relationship amid mankind (Hart, â€Å"Love by Arrangement: The Ambiguity of ‘Spousal Choice’ In a Turkish Village†). Thesis Statement The discussion henceforth will be emphasized on critically evaluating Gitanjeli Sapra’s argument that arranged marriages are actually healthier as compared to love marriages. With this concern, the Toulmin strategy has been selected to structure the arguments in a comprehensive way. Discussion: Toulmin Strategy for Arguments The conception of ‘Toulmin Strategy for Argument’ comprises six different parts which include ‘claim’, ‘qualificatio n’, ‘rebuttal/observation’, ‘grounds’, ‘warrant’ and ‘backing’. The prime intention of this theory is to provide effective guidance in analyzing as well as constructing a suitable logic of a specific argument through the aid of the aforementioned constituents. The detailed analysis of the aforesaid facets based on the argument of Gitanjeli Sapra has been provided hereunder. Claim Arranged Marriages are actually healthier than the kinds of marriages people are accustomed to in the Western world. Since ages, marriages in humankind are regarded to be a sacred practice which intends to generate interpersonal affiliation and kinship between the two people, their families and communities. The terminology of ‘arranged marriages’ are viewed to distinguish those marriages which are primarily negotiated by the family members of the bride and the groom rather than any couple themselves. This kind of marriages is also ackno wledged as prearranged marriages. In relation to the argument which deals with reference to the fact that arranged marriages are actually healthier in comparison with any other marriages, it can be stated that arranged marriages possess numerous significant advantages as compared to other kinds of marriages. The arguments regarding arranged marriages have been mostly based on the perception that such kinships are proportionately healthier in comparison to love marriages as arranged marriages strengthen both economic as well as social ties between the couples (Hart, â€Å"Love by Arrangement: The Ambiguity of ‘Spousal Choice’ In a Turkish Village†). Grounds The major ground for supporting the claim is that arranged marriages last longer and the rates of divorces are quite less. Stating precisely, it has often been observed that arranged marriages tend to last longer owing to the aspect that the couples are rightly matched through planning and patience as they poss es similar culture and share identical religious upbringing. The other precious learnt feature of arranged marriage depicts that there lies a lesser probable chance of divorces. In this regard, it can be stated that the possible chance of divorcing is quite minimum in the case of arranged marriages as compared to other marriages as the couples belong to similar family backgrounds and share identical views regarding life (Hart, â€Å"Love by Arrangement: The Ambiguity of ‘Spousal Choice’ In a Turkish Village†). Warrant The principle that connects the grounds to the claim is

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Research paper on OSTEOPETROSIS Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

On OSTEOPETROSIS - Research Paper Example Mortality associated with infantile osteopetrosis is high. Those with adult osteopetrosis have longterm survival chances. In this research essay, the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, investigations, treatment and prevention will be discussed. Purpose The main purpose of the paper is to present an overview of osteopetrosis. Pathophysiology The main defect in osteopetrosis is in osteoclast which belongs to monocyte-macrophage lineage and genetic defects leads to abnormal osteoclasts (Tolar et al, 2004). Osteoclasts are very important in the modelling and remodeling of the tissue of the bone and defective osteoclasts fail to model and remodel the bone appropriately, resulting in abnormal encroachment and deposition of bone tissue (Teitelbaum, 2000). The abnormal bone tissue is susceptible to fractures and can encroach into the bone marrow leading to bone marrow failure. it can also encroach around the nerves causing nerve entrapment syndrome. When blood vessels are affected, isch emia, especially of the bones like mandible can occur. Eventually, the patient develops multiple fractures, anemia, bleeding disorders and sepsis (Bhargava, and Griffing, 2009). Clinical presentation The clinical presentation depends on the type of osteopetrosis.

Arranged marriage Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Arranged marriage - Essay Example According to various anthropologists along with sociologists, marriages reveal the relationship between emotion, privacy, sexuality and ideologies creating a bond between a man and a woman. They also affirmed marriage to be a social institution which attempts to establish broad assortment of social norms that promote ethical behaviors in order to protect the relationship amid mankind (Hart, â€Å"Love by Arrangement: The Ambiguity of ‘Spousal Choice’ In a Turkish Village†). Thesis Statement The discussion henceforth will be emphasized on critically evaluating Gitanjeli Sapra’s argument that arranged marriages are actually healthier as compared to love marriages. With this concern, the Toulmin strategy has been selected to structure the arguments in a comprehensive way. Discussion: Toulmin Strategy for Arguments The conception of ‘Toulmin Strategy for Argument’ comprises six different parts which include ‘claim’, ‘qualificatio n’, ‘rebuttal/observation’, ‘grounds’, ‘warrant’ and ‘backing’. The prime intention of this theory is to provide effective guidance in analyzing as well as constructing a suitable logic of a specific argument through the aid of the aforementioned constituents. The detailed analysis of the aforesaid facets based on the argument of Gitanjeli Sapra has been provided hereunder. Claim Arranged Marriages are actually healthier than the kinds of marriages people are accustomed to in the Western world. Since ages, marriages in humankind are regarded to be a sacred practice which intends to generate interpersonal affiliation and kinship between the two people, their families and communities. The terminology of ‘arranged marriages’ are viewed to distinguish those marriages which are primarily negotiated by the family members of the bride and the groom rather than any couple themselves. This kind of marriages is also ackno wledged as prearranged marriages. In relation to the argument which deals with reference to the fact that arranged marriages are actually healthier in comparison with any other marriages, it can be stated that arranged marriages possess numerous significant advantages as compared to other kinds of marriages. The arguments regarding arranged marriages have been mostly based on the perception that such kinships are proportionately healthier in comparison to love marriages as arranged marriages strengthen both economic as well as social ties between the couples (Hart, â€Å"Love by Arrangement: The Ambiguity of ‘Spousal Choice’ In a Turkish Village†). Grounds The major ground for supporting the claim is that arranged marriages last longer and the rates of divorces are quite less. Stating precisely, it has often been observed that arranged marriages tend to last longer owing to the aspect that the couples are rightly matched through planning and patience as they poss es similar culture and share identical religious upbringing. The other precious learnt feature of arranged marriage depicts that there lies a lesser probable chance of divorces. In this regard, it can be stated that the possible chance of divorcing is quite minimum in the case of arranged marriages as compared to other marriages as the couples belong to similar family backgrounds and share identical views regarding life (Hart, â€Å"Love by Arrangement: The Ambiguity of ‘Spousal Choice’ In a Turkish Village†). Warrant The principle that connects the grounds to the claim is

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Assessment and Feedback Essay Example for Free

Assessment and Feedback Essay Assessment drives the choices students make about their learning. It is widely recognised that assessment and feedback contain the strongest potential to change how, and what, students do to succeed in their learning (Ramsden, 2003). This Effective Teaching Guide on Assessment provides practical suggestions on assessment and feedback. Assessment of Learning and Assessment for Learning David Boud, a recognised researcher and scholar of assessment in higher education, suggests that assessment has many purposes, but particularly to help students to improve their learning and certify students’ learning. These two purposes lead to different ways of thinking about what, how, and when to assess students: According to Boud and Associate’s Seven Propositions for Assessment Reform in Higher Education (2010), assessment has most effect when: 1. Assessment is used to engage students in learning that is productive (including the need for assessment to be designed to focus students on learning); 2. Feedback is used to actively improve student learning; 3. Students and teachers become responsible partners in learning and assessment; 4. Students are inducted into the assessment practices and cultures of higher education; 5. Assessment for learning is placed at the centre of subject and project design; 6. Assessment for learning is a focus for staff and institutional development; and, 7. Assessment provides inclusive and trustworthy representation of student achievement. The power of feedback Feedback plays an important role in improving students’ learning. A useful summary is that provided by Gibbs and Simpson’s (2004). In their meta-study of the research about how assessment and feedback support student learning, 7 of their 10 identified conditions relate to feedback, and students’ understanding of feedback. These are: †¢ Sufficient feedback is provided, both often enough and in enough detail; †¢ Feedback focuses on students’ performance, on their learning and on actions under the students’ control, rather than on the students themselves and on their characteristics; †¢ Feedback is timely in that it is received by students while it still matters to them, and in time for them to pay attention to further learning or receive further assistance; †¢ Feedback is appropriate to the purpose of the assignment and to its criteria for success; †¢ Feedback is appropriate, in relation to students’ understanding of what they are supposed to be doing; †¢ Feedback is received and attended to; and, †¢ Feedback is acted on by the student. Hounsell (2004) also makes the following points about feedback: †¢ It can be extrinsic (assessment-focused) or intrinsic (activity and  practice-based); †¢ It can be immediate and verbal (in order to address the potential lack of engagement when it arrives after an assessment); †¢ It can be provided to be a whole class; †¢ It can be many to many where students are involved in identifying the strengths and weaknesses (peer feedback); and, †¢ Feedback can be a loop – it can be offered on unfinished work. Another useful idea is feed-forward. Feed-forward encourages students to use something like a marking rubric (also captured by the idea of criteria and standards) to help plan their approach to an assessment. While a marking rubric is routinely used by university teachers to mark/grade students’ work (as an expression of what a student needs to demonstrate (and the level they need to achieve) to receive a particular grade), the idea of feed-forward is about encouraging students to use that same information in the rubric to plan their work, and perhaps even, to self-assess it before submitting it for formal feedback. In summary: Feedback example: Develop a marking rubric as a cover sheet. The rubric identifies the elements of the assignment, together with a breakdown of marks for each element or a description of the standard for an A, B, C, D, P etc. Feed-forward example: Provide the marking rubric to students before the assignment is due so that they clearly understand what’s expected, the levels of achievement, and can plan their approach accordingly. In marking student work, you’ll need a suite of feedback techniques. Remember, if you’re going to be spending a lot of time providing feedback, you want to make sure that students read, use and engage with your feedback to improve their next assignment. The best way to do that is to have a range of techniques that you can draw on, when you need to. The table below describes some feedback techniques. One observation you might make about each of these techniques is that they are focused on: (i) engaging students with the criteria and standards, and (ii) with what the student does with the feedback they receive. If you’d like to read more about these two ideas (and others like them), two articles may be especially useful to you: Rust, Price O’Donovan (2003) and Price, O’Donovan Rust (2004). Consistency and fairness in marking and feedback Consistency in marking, or moderation, is aimed at ensuring fairness in marking, and requires finding or establishing agreement between markers. Making sure that assignments contain criteria and standards is a good start because the expectations involved are clear to the student and clear to the marker. Although this does not absolve the marker from interpreting students’ work, without criteria or standards, the job of marking ends up being much harder. The procedures for marking are set out in the University’s Assessment Procedures (an excerpt of the principles is below): Where there is more than one marker, selected pieces of work from each assessment task should be reviewed by the subject coordinator to verify the level and consistency of the marks allocated by the marker. This process, called moderation, increases the reliability of the assessment process and application of standards, promotes consistency, supports objectivity and establishes a shared understanding of standards and fairness in assessment. The university also has a grading schema with a range of Pass grades. Graduate capabilities Alongside the conventional grading schema, from 2012, all commencing first year students will receive a result on the achievement of the university’s six graduate capabilities at the end of the year: †¢ Writing †¢ Speaking †¢ Inquiry/Research †¢ Critical thinking †¢ Creative Problem-solving †¢ Teamwork There are some subjects which have been designated cornerstone, mid-point and capstone status. This means that their curriculum has been designed to teach, assess, provide feedback and report specifically on these graduate capabilities. For each graduate capability, students will receive one of three results: exceeded expectations, met expectations or did not meet expectations. Each faculty has carefully crafted a description of what these standards look like. It may be the case that you will be asked to provide feedback to students about their graduate capability achievement as well. Because faculties will have already done substantial work outlining those standards, it is likely you will be asked to offer students that feedback. Summary When considered together, assessment and feedback are incredibly powerful levers for influencing the direction of students’ efforts, and their learning. For many students, the assessment in the subject is the actual curriculum. It is largely students’ reading and perception of what the assessment demands of them which is a key determinant in how they spend their time in a subject. Therefore, the messages that students take away about assessment from the documents; the Subject Guide; from interaction with other students, are important considerations. In the second week, you will discover just how crucial feedback is to this process and how the  adoption of standards and criteria will help you mark and grade more efficiently and effectively. References Gibbs, G. and Simpson, C. (2004). Conditions Under Which Assessment Supports Student Learning. Learning and Teaching, Issue 1, pp: 3-31. Hattie, J. Timperley, H. (2007). The Power of Feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), 81-112. Hounsell, D. (2004). Reinventing Feedback in the Contemporary Scottish University. Scottish Quality Enhancement Workshop on Assessment, University of Glasgow [available online at:]. O’Donovan, B., Price, M., Rust, C. (2004). Know what I mean? Enhancing student understanding of assessment standards and criteria. Teaching in Higher Education, 9(3), 325-335. Orrell, J. (2006). Assessment beyond intuition. Central Queensland University [available online at:, accessed Feb 2011]. Price, M., O’Donovan, B., Rust, C. (2004).Know what I mean? Enhancing student understanding of assessment standards and criteria. Teaching in Higher Education, 9(3), 325-335. Ramsden, P. (2003). Learning to teach in higher education. (2nd edition). Routledge, NY London. Rust, C., Price, M., O’Donovan, B. (2003). Improving Students’ Learning by Developing their Understanding of Assessment Criteria and Processes. Assessment Evaluation in Higher Education, 28(2), 147-164. Taylor, J. (2008). Assessment in First Year University: A model to manage transition. Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice, 5(1).

Monday, October 14, 2019

Studies of Adoptively Transferred CMV-Specific T Cells

Studies of Adoptively Transferred CMV-Specific T Cells Group Method of Expansion/Selection Riddell, 1992, 1995 Expansion using CMV-infected fibroblasts Einsele, 2002 Expansion with CMV lysate Cobbold, 2005 Tetramer Selection using magnetic beads Micklethwaite, 2008 Antigen-presenting cells (Dendritic cells) transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding CMVpp65 Peggs, 2011 Selection of T cells secreting IFN-ÃŽÂ ³ after exposure to CMV antigen Blyth, 2013 Antigen-presenting cells (Dendritic cells) transduced with an adenoviral vector encoding CMVpp65 or Dendritic cells pulsed with HLA-A02-restricted peptide NLVPMVATV Quoted from (Hanley and Bollard, 2014). The ability to generate CMV, EBV, and adenovirus-specific CTL from the 20% fraction of a cord blood unit by using dendritic cells transduced with an Ad5/f35-CMV-pp65 vector as well as the cytokines IL-7, IL-12, and IL-15 was reported by Hanley and colleagues in 2009. Responding T cells were shown to be derived from the naÃÆ'Â ¯ve T cell population and responded to typical and atypical, novel CMV-pp65 epitopes. Later on, the ability to generate CMV-specific T cells from CMV-seronegative donors was reported by Jedema et al., 2011 and Hanley et al., 2013. Vaccination: On the basis of the cost to the health care system and the impact of the virus on human suffering, the development of an effective prophylactic vaccine to prevent CMV symptomatic congenital disease and/or to prevent disease in immunocompromised individuals is a high priority and would be a highly cost-effective measure (Khanna and Diamond, 2006). A successful vaccine strategy should aim to stimulate the innate and adaptive immune responses at the appropriate time. Both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses might be necessary to prevent congenital disease, whereas cellular immune response alone might be sufficient to prevent virus-associated complications in transplant patients (Khanna and Diamond, 2006). Cytomegalovirus exhibits a high level of molecular diversity and carries many immune evasion genes (Hansen et al., 2010). Thus, infection within a host can occur with multiple virus strains concomitantly, including at the time of initial infection, or sequentially (Renzette et al., 2011). Broad and cross-neutralizing cellular and humoral responses have therefore become a major goal of vaccine design (Arvin et al., 2004). Various strategies have been developed, though a vaccine against CMV remains elusive. CMV vaccines have been obtained using attenuated or chimeric viruses, DBs, recombinant proteins, DNA, peptides and/or viral vectors (poxvirus/adenovirus) (Khanna and Diamond, 2006). A number of subunit CMV vaccines tested in clinical trials targeted the abundant pp65 protein (Sylwester et al., 2005), which is expressed by CMV-infected cells both early and late after infection (La Rosa et al., 2012). Cytomegalovirus vaccines in clinical trials include: glycoprotein B subunit vaccines; alphavirus replicon particle vaccines; DNA vaccines; and live-attenuated vaccines. A variety of vaccine strategies are also being examined in preclinical systems and animal models of infection. These include: recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vaccines; recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara; replication-deficient adenovirus-vectored vaccines; and recombinant live-attenuated virus vaccines generated by mutagenesis of cloned rodent CMV genomes maintained as bacterial artificial chromosomes in Escherichia coli (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). Trial of a subunit vaccine consisting of recombinant HCMV envelope gB with MF59 adjuvant: All HCMV-infected individuals have a significant proportion of neutralizing antibodies to HCMV being specific for epitopes on gB (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). A study of the use of HCMV gB vaccine plus MF59 adjuvant was reported. It was administered following a 0-, 1- and 6-month schedule (Pass et al., 2009). Although the study demonstrated that the gB vaccine could significantly reduce the risk of acquiring primary maternal HCMV infection, the study did not address the question of whether vaccine-induced HCMV immunity was equivalent to natural immunity in modulating either infection rate or sequelae for the fetus (Dekker and Arvin, 2009). Since re-infection with new strains of HCMV with which the host has no prior experience can lead to transmission to the fetus with subsequent sequelae (Boppana et al., 2001), the issue of cross-protection against diverse clinical isolates following administration of gB vaccine from a single genotype must be defined in future studies (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). Clinical trial evaluation of a two-component alphavirus replicon particle vaccine containing HCMV gB and phosphoprotein 65 (pp65)/immediate early fusion proteins: The gB and the pp65 are the most frequently recognized antigens by CD4+ T cells, and pp65 is also one of the antigens most frequently recognized by CD8+ T cells (Sylwester et al., 2005). The HCMV IE1 is also an important target of the CD8+ T-cell response (Slezak et al., 2007). Therefore, vaccination strategies that aimed at eliciting T-cell responses has focused on the pp65 protein andIE1 gene product (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). AVX601 is a two-component alphavirus replicon particle vaccine expressing HCMV gB and a fusion protein of pp65-IE1 (Reap et al., 2007). The vaccine was well tolerated, with only mild local reactogenicity, Mild-to-moderate systemic reactogenicity was reported in some subjects (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). Bivalent HCMV DNA vaccine: The use of a HCMV DNA vaccine in immunocompromised subjects, such as transplant recipients, would eliminate the safety concerns of live-attenuated HCMV or live recombinant viral-vectored vaccines (Selinsky et al., 2006). DNA vaccines elicit robust CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell and antibody responses (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). VCL-CB01, a bivalent HCMV DNA vaccine that contains two plasmids encoding HCMV pp65 and gB (LiuÂÂ   and Ulmer, 2005). This vaccine has the ability to prime antigen-specific T cells, with the capacity to proliferate and secrete IFN-ÃŽÂ ³ on restimulation with antigen (Wloch et al., 2008). Further modifications of this vaccine may be required to optimize immunogenicity, particularly to the gB moiety (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). It was generally well tolerated. The most common adverse event was mild site injection pain (Liu and Ulmer, 2005). Live-attenuated HCMV Towne vaccine with or without adjuvant recombinant IL-12 and/or priming by DNA vaccine: Immunization with Towne vaccine prevented HCMV disease in seronegative renal transplant recipients, although it did not prevent infection in these patients or in parents of HCMV-infected children (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). Evidence suggests that the relative defect in Towne vaccine may be related to inadequate antigen-specific IFN-ÃŽÂ ³ responses by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following vaccination (Jacobson et al., 2006). Approaches to improve the immunogenicity of the Towne vaccine are being explored (Jacobson et al., 2009). One approach was to generate genetic recombinant vaccines containing regions from the genome of the unattenuated Toledo strain of HCMV, substituted for the corresponding regions of the Towne genome (Heineman et al., 2006). In another approach, HCMV DNA vaccine is used to prime for memory immune responses to Towne vaccine (Jacobson et al., 2009). A third approach is to co-administer Towne with recombinant human IL-12 (Jacobson et al., 2006*). 5) Preclinical vaccine development Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing murine cytomegalovirus gB: As a recombinant vaccine vector, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can induce strong humoral and cellular immunity, particularly at mucosal surfaces. This attribute makes recombinant VSV (rVSV) an attractive candidate for development of a vectored HCMV vaccine (Wilson etal., 2008). Live rVSV vector expressing a murine CMV homolog of the gB protein has been tested in the mouse model (Wilson etal., 2008). This induced neutralizing antibody responses, and resulted in reduced viral titers. Also, splenocytes from immunized mice produced a CD8+ IFN-ÃŽÂ ³ response to gB (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara: The attenuated poxvirus, modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), was established as a safe and potent antigen delivery system. Its genome has undergone six major deletions during serial passage (Sung and Schleiss, 2010), which, in turn, allows the insertion of multiple HCMV genes (Wang et al., 2007). A recombinant MVA vaccine that expresses a soluble, secreted form of HCMV gB, based on the AD169 strain sequence has been constructed (Wang et al., 2004). High levels of gB-specific neutralizing antibodies were elicited in vaccinated mice (Sung and Schleiss, 2010). A trivalent MVA expressing gB, pp65 and IE1 has been developed (Wang et al., 2006) with ability to induce humoral and cellular immunity to gB (Wang et al., 2006). Recombinant MVAs have also been generated expressing both full-length pp65 and exon 4 of IE1 with induction of robust primary cell-mediated immunity and stimulation of vigorous expansion of memory Tcell responses to both antigens (Wang et al., 2007). Another recombinant MVA expressing pp65 and a fusion protein of HCMV IE1 exon 4 and IE2 exon 5 was constructed to maximize the representation of IE-specific immunity (Wang et al., 2008). Replication-deficient adenovirus-vectored polyepitope vaccine: Systemic and mucosal immunity to MCMV could be induced by intranasal immunization using a replication deficient adenoviral vector expressing murine CMV glycoprotein H in a murine model (Shanley and Wu, 2005). Modified adenoviral vector Ad5F35, Ad5F35-AD-1, has been generated, expressing the immunodominant antigenic domain-1 epitope of HCMV gB based on the sequence from the AD169 strain (Zhao et al., 2009). Since the AD-1 epitope is well conserved between different strains of HCMV (Britt et al., 2005), expression of the AD-1 epitope from AD5F35 elicits neutralizing antibody responses to diverse clinical isolates (Zhao et al., 2009). Another replication deficient adenoviral-vectored vaccine, Ad-gBCMVpoly (Zhong et al., 2008) which encodes 46 HCMV T-cell epitopes from multiple antigens covalently linked to the extracellular domain of HCMV gB antigen (Zhong et al., 2008). This chimeric vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody responses and virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses (Zhong and Khanna, 2009). Recombinant live CMV vaccine by bacterial artificial chromosome mutagenesis: An ideal live-attenuated HCMV vaccine should grow to high titers in cell culture for easy production, should be severely attenuated in vivo, even in immunocompromised hosts, and should elicit a strong immune response sufficient to protect against HCMV-associated disease (Mohr et al., 2008). An approach to the generation of such a vaccine is the targeted deletion of CMV genes modulating the host immune response (Cicin-Sain et al., 2007). This approach has been facilitated by the advances in mutagenesis of cloned CMV genomes maintained as bacterial artificial chromosomes in Escherichia coli as well as the rapidly expanding knowledge about the role of viral genes in immunopathogenesis and immune evasion (Dunn et al., 2003).

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Macbeth :: essays research papers

The Blood Theme in Macbeth One of the themes in the tragedy of Macbeth is that of blood. Macbeth is known for his skills as a warrior and his mercilessness that is shown in his killing of MacDonwald. This warrior mentality quickly spreads into his life, and he begins to make killing a habit. When he is told in a prophecy that he shall be king, Macbeth takes it upon himself to murder Duncan, king of Scotland. After this murder he begins to see visions of blood on his hands, blood nothing could remove. As Macbeth becomes more ambitious, he also begins to kill more people to get the power that he wants. The theme of blood is shown throughout the play, and is a problem that Macbeth finds harder and harder to rid himself of after each killing. At the beginning of the play Macbeth is an esteemed member of the army, probably the greatest fighter in all of Scotland. He gets word that a rebellious tribe led by MacDonwald is defeating the Scots. He â€Å"single-handedly† defeats the rebels and â€Å"unseamed him (MacDonwald) from the nave to th’ chops.† With this Macbeth earns great respect among his peers, and even the king. On his way home from war three witches tell him his future. â€Å"All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor! All Hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter!† Macbeth was already thane of Glamis, and wondered why they would say that he would be Thane of Cawdor or even king, so he blew it off as tomfoolery, and impossible. However, he was later told by the king that because of his valiant fighting against MacDonwald that he was to be given the title of the Thane of Cawdor. All this makes him think again of the witches prophecies, and he wonders if indeed he could be king. The desire for power began to consume Macbeth and his wife, and this ambition caused all of the bloody events that were to follow. Macbeth began to want the kingship that Duncan had more and more. Together Macbeth and his wife Lady Macbeth plotted to hurry Macbeth’s reign, by killing Duncan themselves. At night Macbeth gains access to Duncan’s sleeping quarters, kills the guards, and stabs King Duncan to death. After the murder, Macbeth is clearly shaken, and can hardly believe what he has done.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Emotion and Feeling in Lord Byrons Poetry Essay -- Poetry Analysis

The genre of poetry itself produces connotations based around raw emotions, especially when considering poetry from the Romanticism era. Furthermore, poetry which is based on emotions (whether negative or positive) is what makes it successful in evoking a more personal response from the reader. When exploring poetry references such as 'The English Poetic Mind' by Charles Williams, he states how when 'We are told of a thing; we are made to feel as if that thing were possible to us; and we are so made to feel it-whatever the thing may be, joy or despair...knowledge is an intense satisfaction to us '1. This statement supports the idea that a certain emotion must be within a poem, meaning if the reader is able to relate to it, the poem is more effective. However, these quotes support the importance of emotion within poetry, but what about the importance of emotion within the poet? Throughout this essay, Lord Byron will be the main poet of focus, as his notorious lifestyle suggests that t rue emotion may have been his weakness. His poems 'Fare Thee Well!' (composed 18 March 1816: From Poems (1816)) and 'When we two parted' (composed August or September 1815: From Poems (1816)) will also be the primary focus, as they represent two negative influences which happened in Byron's life that would have produced an emotional response. When first approaching Byron's poetry, the reader would find it difficult not to judge the poem without putting it in the context of his famous reputation. He was a celebrity of his time due to his lavish and liberal lifestyle. Paul West states that 'The difficulty is that if we respond to him at all, we respond to his temperament '2. But how would one respond to his poetry if they had no previous knowledg... ...ling. To complete the discussion, the assessment of Byron and his works leads to the belief that personal emotions and feelings are important, as it is through this delicate, yet expressive language, that poetry is formed. Bibliography: Williams, Charles, (1932). The English Poetic Mind. Oxford University Press West, Paul (1963). BYRON A collection of critical essays. Prentice-Hall, Inc. Marchand, Leslie A. (1957) BYRON A Biography. Volume Two. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. Poems: 'Fare Thee Well!' by Lord Byron (composed 18 March 1816: From Poems (1816)) taken from Wu, Duncan, (2006) Romanticism An Anthology, Third Edition. Blackwell Publishing. p. 850-852. 'When we two parted' by Lord Byron (composed August or September 1815: From Poems (1816)) taken from Wu, Duncan, (2006) Romanticism An Anthology, Third Edition. Blackwell Publishing. p. 849.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Avon Promotion Essay

We employ certain web enabled systems to increase Representative support, which allow a Representative to run her or his business more efficiently and also allow us to improve our order-processing accuracy. For example, in many countries, Representatives can utilize the Internet to manage their business electronically, including order submission, order tracking, payment and two-way communications with us. In addition, in the U.S. and certain other markets, Representatives can further build their own business through personalized web pages provided by us, enabling them to sell a complete line of our products online. Self-paced online training also is available in certain markets.In some markets, we use decentralized branches, satellite stores and independent retail operations (e.g., beauty boutiques) to serve Representatives and other customers Representatives come to a branch to place and pick up product orders for their customers. The branches also create visibility for us with consumers and help reinforce our beauty image. In certain markets, we provide opportunities to license our beauty centers and other retail-oriented and direct-to-consumer opportunities to reach new customers in complementary ways to direct selling. In the U.S. and certain other markets, we also market our products through consumer websites (e.g., in the U.S.). The recruiting or appointing and training of Representatives are the primary responsibilities of district sales managers, zone managers and independent leaders. Depending on the market and the responsibilities of the role, some of these individuals are our employees and some are independent contractors. Those who are employees are paid a salary and an incentive based primarily on the achievement of a sales objective in their district. Those who are independent contractors are rewarded primarily based on total sales achieved in their zones or downline team of recruited, trained and managed Representatives. Personal contacts, including recommendations from current Representatives (including the Leadership program), and local market advertising constitute the primary means of obtaining new Representatives. The Leadership program is a multi-level compensation program which gives Representatives, known as independent leaders, the opportunity to earn discounts on their own sales of our products, as well as commissions based on the net sales made by Representatives they have recruited and trained.  This program generally limits the number of levels on which commissions can be earned to three. The primary responsibilities of independent leaders are the prospecting, appointing, training and development of their downline Representatives while maintaining a certain level of their own sales. Development of the Leadership program throughout the world is one part of our long-term growth strategy. As described above, the Representative is the â€Å"store† through which we primarily sell our products and, given the high rate of turnover among Representatives (a common characteristic of direct selling), it is critical that we recruit, retain and service Representatives on a continuing basis in order to maintain and grow our business. From time to time, local governments and others question the legal status of Representatives or impose burdens inconsistent with their status as independent contractors, often in regard to possible coverage under social benefit laws that would require us (and, in most instances, the Representatives) to make regular contributions to government social benefit funds. Although we have generally been able to address these questions in a satisfactory manner, these questions can be raised again following regulatory changes in a jurisdiction or can be raised in other jurisdictions. If there should be a final determination adverse to us in a country, the cost for future, and possibly past, contributions could be so substantial in the context of the volume and profitability of our business in that country that we would consider discontinuing operations in that country. Promotion and Marketing Sales promotion and sales development activities are directed at assisting Representatives, through sales aids such as brochures, product samples and demonstration products. In order to support the efforts of Representatives to reach new customers, specially designed sales aids, promotional pieces, customer flyers, television advertising and print advertising can be used. In addition, we seek to motivate our Representatives through the use of special incentive programs that reward superior sales performance. Periodic sales meetings with Representatives are conducted by the district sales or zone managers. The meetings are designed to keep Representatives abreast of product line changes, explain sales techniques and provide recognition for  sales performance. A number of merchandising techniques are used, including the introduction of new products, the use of combination offers, the use of trial sizes and samples, and the promotion of products packaged as gift items. In general, for each sales campaign, a distinctive brochure is published, in which new products are introduced and selected items are offered as special promotions or are given particular prominence in the brochure. A key priority for our merchandising is to continue the use of pricing and promotional models and tools to enable a deeper, fact-based understanding of the role and impact of pricing within our product portfolio. From time to time, various regulations or laws have been proposed or adopted that would, in general, restrict the frequency, duration or volume of sales resulting from new product introductions, special promotions or other special price offers. We expect our pricing flexibility and broad product lines to mitigate the effect of these regulations. Competitive Conditions We face competition from various products and product lines both domestically and internationally.