Wednesday, September 18, 2019
An experiment to investigate whether concentration of acid has an :: GCSE Chemistry Coursework Investigation
An experiment to investigate whether concentration of acid has an effect on the reaction rate of the reaction between Calcium Carbonate and Hydrochloric Acid. 1. The key factor I plan to investigate and what I will do to make my experiment a fair test The factor that I plan to investigate is whether the concentration of acid (the acid being HCl) has any effect on the rate of reaction between Calcium carbonate and Hydrochloric acid. I will vary the concentration and calculate rate of reaction, and calculate the effect of the factor by measuring the amount of gas given of during the reaction, and finding out how much gas is given of every 15 seconds. I will collect the gas by bubbling it into a gas collection tube in a water bath. I will use five different concentrations 80%, 70%, 60%, 50%, and 40% acid. I will mix acid with water to get the desired concentration, and for each experiment I will keep the volume of the acid and water combined at 50 ml. For example in order to 80% concentration I will mix 40 ml of acid, and 10 ml of water. For each different concentration I will conduct 3 identical experiments, and collect my results every 15 seconds. I will then average out the three different results for one particular time and produce one result. I will collect 8 results per an experiment. I will repeat any measurements that don't appear to follow the general trend. Also to make sure that results are accurate I will use a 100 ml measuring tube with marking for every 1 cm3. I will measure the liquid in a test tube with 1 cm3 marking. I will conduct my experiment in the laboratory. The equation for this experiment is: CaCo3 + 2HCL CaCL2 + H2O + CO2 The variables I plan to control 1. Surface area: The surface area of each marble chip should be kept relatively the same because due to collision theory if more surface area is available the number of particles of solid reactant available for collision will increase. Therefore more collisions can occur, and it is likely there will be more collisions with sufficient energy to successfully lead to a reaction. I might not be able to keep the surface area of my marble chips exactly the same but I will attempt to keep it as similar as possible. 2.Volume of liquid: I will keep the amount of liquid at 50 ml, because if I don't keep the amount of liquid constant I will change the amount of acid in contact with the marble chips, because if there is more HCL
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The Changing World of Women As a daughter living in a strict environment and living in a traditional ways, things get a little rough. My father is center of the household, so basically everything he says goes. In the western world itÃ¢â¬ s usually the other way around, itÃ¢â¬ s usually both the parents that have a say in things. In my society(Muslim society) my mother has a say in nothing unless my father asks. My mother is an excellent mother but she mustnÃ¢â¬ t say anything or it would be considered not being a good wife. As I get older I am always dreading the day I am asked to be married. I know times have changed but I have a major dilemma. Am I going to marry or continue my education? The problem is I like working with medicine and I want to further my education by going to college. But that requires a minimum of six years university attendance and if I want more degrees that another five years. Most of my medical friends that are females married and had children while they were studying in college. I donÃ¢â¬ t want that to be me. I want to actually finish something I start. My father isnÃ¢â¬ t exactly helping me with the situation. He hates the fact that I want to work. In his case, women are not supposed to work unnecessarily if their husbands can provide for them(or their fathers can provide for them if their not married), but in a place like Saudi Arabia where men and women donÃ¢â¬ t mix at work, working just enhances the mind and makes one wiser to the ways of the world. In my mothers opinion, women become better companions to their husbands who should be more understanding and supportive. I feel that instead of being selfish, we can work out ways that help us be! good mothers, wives and also continue with our needs of life. If education is one such need, then there are ways to acquire it without causing disturbance. I think my father needs to catch up with the rest of the Muslim world instead of staying in the traditional ways. He said when I finish or if I finish my medical school he would refuse permission to let me work in a hospital. I guess some things will never change. The only person this dilemma is affecting is me. No one else has to go through my challenge of being a women over coming these obstacles but me. Hopefully their will be other women that follow in my foot steps and make a difference for all women or at least try. Women have come a long way but they are coming up in the world and no one can stop us.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Bianca Lynch Literary device essay In the novel At First Sight by Nicholas Sparks He uses mood to help you understand the main character, this also helps you to empathize with his problems and correlate to how they may feel. Another literary device he uses to help you connect to the novel is imagery; he paints an elaborated picture of the town Jeremy Marsh now lives in with his new wife Lexi. The Author describes Boone Creek, a small town in NC Jeremy Marsh has recently moved to for his fiance Lexi Darnell, as a small country hick town that anyone coming from NYC would be ashamed to call home. As Jeremy starts to feel more at home, His perspective of the town is changed. It changes from being a hick town to somewhere refreshing where he could see himself settling down with Lexi and their Daughter to come he expresses this early on in ch. Four of the novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The last month in Boone creek, boring as it had been, was actuallyÃ¢â¬ ¦refreshingÃ¢â¬ (Jeremy pg 52). In fact he gets so used to the town that when he went back home to NY for his bachelor party he felt out of place, as if something just didnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit. His brothers and best friend Alvin criticized his clothes, the Ã¢â¬Å"lumberjackÃ¢â¬ shirt Lexi bought him. Although Jeremy always did consider himself a somewhat Ã¢â¬Å"stylishÃ¢â¬ man and if he was still living in NY would have never been seen in those clothes by wearing it made him feel somehow connected to Lexi and his new home Boone Creek. As I read this novel I pictured a clean cut New Yorker moving so a small country town and becoming lost in all the small town gossip and unfamiliar country ways. Ã¢â¬ TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll talk behind our backs, theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll gossip, and itÃ¢â¬â¢ll take folks along time to forget that we Ã¢â¬Ëlived in sinÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Lexi pg. 4) Lexi told Jeremy when trying to explain to him why they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t live together before getting married. What Jeremy could not become accustomed to was the constant gossip about other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, although this did go on in the city it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as bad because new Yorkers donÃ¢â¬â¢t have enough time in the day to just sit around and talk about other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. Another literary device Nicholas Sparks used to absorb the readers attention is mood. Throughout the whole first half of the novel I was left in suspense s to how Jeremy and Lexis relationship would turn out. In the first four chapters the author tries to get the reader to think that there may be some kind of unfaithfulness going on between Lexi and Jeremy on LexiÃ¢â¬â¢s part. Jeremy goes to Lexis job early one day to surprise her and she wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t there and did not mention getting off early to him beforehand. When he went to look for her he found her on the bench that overlooked the river with Rodney, her childhood love,Ã¢â¬ until , that is they shifted on the bench, and he then realized they were holding hands. (Jeremy pg. 73), this along with many other unexplained disappearances by Lexi leads to the suspense in the novel. As I read the end when lexi dies after labor it puts me in a doleful mood. With Jeremy mourning his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s death and the thought of their baby girl not having a mother in her life, he refuses to go see his daughter; in fact he said he never wanted to see her. Since Lexi died during Claries birth Jeremy feels animosity towards her, when asked if he saw her yet he said no. Ã¢â¬Å"Jeremy turned away. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to heart that, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to hear anything about the babyÃ¢â¬ ¦would he ever be happy again? Ã¢â¬ (Jeremy pg 258) Doris, LexiÃ¢â¬â¢s grandmother finally convinces him to go see her, Ã¢â¬Å"And in that instance, while staring at his daughter through a thousand tears, he fell in love and wanted nothing more than to hold Claire forever. Ã¢â¬ (Narrator pg 263). Jeremy learns to accept Lexis death and accept the gift she left behind, Claire. Although the novel jumps from suspense to love to distressing times Nicholas Sparks still manages to consume the readers attention by using mood and imajery.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Senor Roldan was sitting behind his desk at Escortes Belen congratulating himself for deftly sidestepping the Guardia's newest pathetic attempt to trap him. Having an officer fake a German accent and request a girl for the night-it was entrapment; what would they think of next? The phone on his desk buzzed loudly. Senor Roldan scooped up the receiver with a confident flair. Ã¢â¬Å"Buenas noches, Escortes Belen.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Buenas noches,Ã¢â¬ a man's voice said in lightning-fast Spanish. He sounded nasal, like he had a slight cold. Ã¢â¬Å"Is this a hotel?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, sir. What number are you dialing?Ã¢â¬ Senor Roldan was not going to fall for any more tricks this evening. Ã¢â¬Å"34-62-10,Ã¢â¬ the voice said. Roldan frowned. The voice sounded vaguely familiar. He tried to place the accent-Burgos, maybe? Ã¢â¬Å"You've dialed the correct number,Ã¢â¬ Roldan offered cautiously, Ã¢â¬Å"but this is an escort service.Ã¢â¬ There was a pause on the line. Ã¢â¬Å"OhÃ¢â¬ ¦ I see. I'm sorry. Somebody wrote down this number; I thought it was a hotel. I'm visiting here, from Burgos. My apologies for disturbing you. Good nigh-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Espere! Wait!Ã¢â¬ Senor Roldan couldn't help himself; he was a salesman at heart. Was this a referral? A new client from up north? He wasn't going to let a little paranoia blow a potential sale. Ã¢â¬Å"My friend,Ã¢â¬ Roldan gushed into the phone. Ã¢â¬Å"I thought I recognized a bit of a Burgos accent on you. I myself am from Valencia. What brings you to Seville?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I sell jewelry. Majorica pearls.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Majoricas, reeaally! You must travel quite a bit.Ã¢â¬ The voice coughed sickly. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, yes, I do.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"In Seville on business?Ã¢â¬ Roldan pressed. There was no way in hell this guy was Guardia; he was a customer with a capital C. Ã¢â¬Å"Let me guess-a friend gave you our number? He told you to give us a call. Am I right?Ã¢â¬ The voice was obviously embarrassed. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, no, actually, it's nothing like that.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Don't be shy, senor. We are an escort service, nothing to be ashamed of. Lovely girls, dinner dates, that is all. Who gave you our number? Perhaps he is a regular. I can give you a special rate.Ã¢â¬ The voice became flustered. Ã¢â¬Å"AhÃ¢â¬ ¦ nobody actually gave me this number. I found it with a passport. I'm trying to find the owner.Ã¢â¬ Roldan's heart sank. This man was not a customer after all. Ã¢â¬Å"You found the number, you say?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, I found a man's passport in the park today. Your number was on a scrap of paper inside. I thought perhaps it was the man's hotel; I was hoping to return his passport to him. My mistake. I'll just drop it off at a police station on my way out of-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Perdon,Ã¢â¬ Roldan interrupted nervously. Ã¢â¬Å"Might I suggest a better idea?Ã¢â¬ Roldan prided himself on discretion, and visits to the Guardia had a way of making his customers ex-customers. Ã¢â¬Å"Consider this,Ã¢â¬ he offered. Ã¢â¬Å"Because the man with the passport had our number, he is most likely a client here. Perhaps I could save you a trip to the police.Ã¢â¬ The voice hesitated. Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. I should probably just-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Do not be too hasty, my friend. I'm ashamed to admit that the police here in Seville are not always as efficient as the police up north. It could be days before this man's passport is returned to him. If you tell me his name, I could see that he gets his passport immediately.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes, wellÃ¢â¬ ¦ I suppose there's no harmÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ Some paper rustled, and the voice returned. Ã¢â¬Å"It's a German name. I can't quite pronounce itÃ¢â¬ ¦ GustaÃ¢â¬ ¦ Gustafson?Ã¢â¬ Roldan didn't recognize the name, but he had clients from all over the world. They never left their real names. Ã¢â¬Å"What does he look like-in his photo? Perhaps I will recognize him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"WellÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ the voice said. Ã¢â¬Å"His face is very, very fat.Ã¢â¬ Roldan immediately knew. He remembered the obese face well. It was the man with Rocio. It was odd, he thought, to have two calls about the German in one night. Ã¢â¬Å"Mr. Gustafson?Ã¢â¬ Roldan forced a chuckle. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course! I know him well. If you bring me his passport, I'll see he gets it.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'm downtown without a car,Ã¢â¬ the voice interrupted. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe you could come to me?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Actually,Ã¢â¬ Roldan hedged, Ã¢â¬Å"I can't leave the phone. But it's really not that far if you-Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"I'm sorry, it's late to be out wandering about. There's a Guardia precinct nearby. I'll drop it there, and when you see Mr. Gustafson, you can tell him where it is.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No, wait!Ã¢â¬ Roldan cried. Ã¢â¬Å"The police really needn't be involved. You said you're downtown, right? Do you know the Alfonso XIII Hotel? It's one of the city's finest.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Yes,Ã¢â¬ the voice said. Ã¢â¬Å"I know the Alfonso XIII. It's nearby.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Wonderful! Mr. Gustafson is a guest there tonight. He's probably there now.Ã¢â¬ The voice hesitated. Ã¢â¬Å"I see. Well, thenÃ¢â¬ ¦ I suppose it would be no trouble.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Superb! He's having dinner with one of our escorts in the hotel restaurant.Ã¢â¬ Roldan knew they were probably in bed by now, but he needed to be careful not to offend the caller's refined sensibilities. Ã¢â¬Å"Just leave the passport with the concierge, his name is Manuel. Tell him I sent you. Ask him to give it to Rocio. Rocio is Mr. Gustafson's date for the evening. She will see that the passport is returned. You might slip your name and address inside-perhaps Mr. Gustafson will send you a little thank you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"A fine idea. The Alfonso XIII. Very well, I'll take it over right now. Thank you for your help.Ã¢â¬ David Becker hung up the phone. Ã¢â¬Å"Alfonso XIII.Ã¢â¬ He chuckled. Ã¢â¬Å"Just have to know how to ask.Ã¢â¬ Moments later a silent figure followed Becker up Calle Deliciasinto the softly settling Andalusian night.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
John Irving's notoriety as a novelist rests at least partially upon his admirable ability to fuse the comic and tragic in fiction, often within the same Ã¢â¬Å"sketchÃ¢â¬ or scene. His persistent vision of the absurd and sublime as conjoined twins alludes to a more profound and probing set of themes in his published fiction.In his novel, Ã¢â¬Å"The World According to GarpÃ¢â¬ the apparent domesticity of the story's characters and settings prove little protection against the forces of fate or circumstance which collide repeatedly with the domestic surface of the novel, many times in irruptions of violence, with much of that violence seeming to be random or bizarre. The function and role of violence in Ã¢â¬Å"The World According to GarpÃ¢â¬ is manifold; however, one of the primary functions of Irving's continuous depiction of violence is to portray the chaos and random dangers of the universe.The point of violence in Ã¢â¬Å"The World According to GarpÃ¢â¬ is not only to ins truct readers about possible sociological and ethical breeches in contemporary society, but to remind readers of the primal, seemingly random violence which fills the universe itself. One way of depicting violence in the novel is to show a darkly comic, almost slapstick vision of violence, as in the infamous Michael Milton Ã¢â¬Å"castrationÃ¢â¬ scene where one of the novel's darkest and most tragic moments is simultaneously offset by the Ã¢â¬Å"humorÃ¢â¬ of the situation: his penis being bitten off in a car while engaging in an extramarital affair.There is simultaneously a notion of poetic justice in this scene, but also of devastating almost unimaginable tragedy which shatters the surface of the domestic scene. This juxtapositioning of violence with comic-tragic experience is continuous throughout the novel. Ã¢â¬Å"The existence of bizarre violence and the associated vein of black humor, even in the first section of the book, contributes to irony. The novel opens to the backd rop of a war, and Jenny Fields's brusque categorizing of the wounded The Role and Function of Violence in `The World According to Garp` page -2-into classes of Externals, Vital Organs, Absentees, and Goners certainly contains an element of the blackly humorous. Ã¢â¬ (Wilson, 1992, p. 55) In one way or another, each of the characters in Ã¢â¬Å"The World According to GarpÃ¢â¬ is seen to be either a victim of violence, usually chaotic violence, living in the aftermath of their experience, or as a victim (unknowingly) headed for a violent encounter, or both. The sense of violence as ubiquitous, but ultimately unpredictable and unaccountable, reinforces the cosmic or universal scope of the primal element of violence discussed previously.This primalÃ¢â¬â ineffable Ã¢â¬â power, the power of random violent tragedy is symbolized by Walt's mis-hearing of the word Ã¢â¬Å"undertowÃ¢â¬ which he mistakenly calls Ã¢â¬Å"Under Toad. Ã¢â¬ The Ã¢â¬Å"Under ToadÃ¢â¬ becomes a near -archetypal vision of cosmic disorder and brutality. Ã¢â¬Å"Walt's malapropism becomes a catchphrase that the Garp family uses to refer to imminent danger, violence, and death. The randomness and suddenness of death are brought to our attention at the very beginning of the novel when Garp's father, the ball-turret gunner, becomes a Ã¢â¬Å"Goner.Ã¢â¬ Although violence and death abound in Irving first novel, Setting Free the Bears, in Garp there is one disaster after another. (Campbell, 1998, p. 81) The universal presence of violence and disorder becomes associated, through its immersion into the Ã¢â¬Å"every dayÃ¢â¬ settings and characters, with a primitive, natural force, something which impacts humanity and flows through them but issues, perhaps, from a more cosmically primitive level. One way the natural primitivism of violence is expressed in Ã¢â¬Å"The World According to GarpÃ¢â¬ is through the association of violence with sex.Ã¢â¬Å"Whatever the The Role and Function o f Violence in `The World According to Garp` page -3-connection, sex and violence are related throughout the novel, and Garp finds himself confronting them at nearly every turn. Ã¢â¬Å"(Campbell, 1998, p. 83) This association allows Irving to demonstrate that primal, chaotic violence exists as an intrinsic part of the universal paradigm and finds oblique, often absurd and even humorous expression through human events. In this way, violence, like death and birth, love and sex, is viewed as an endemic force of nature.As a symbol for Irving's cosmic paradigm, the wrestling room at Steering college offers a complex and complete statement, symbolically, for Irving's cosmic vision. Here, in a place created for violent confrontation, all of the major events of a life, Garp's life, emanate. Ã¢â¬Å"It is not only where Garp learns how to wrestle and feels at home, but also where he proposes to Helen Holm. It is, further, the space that Pooh Percy enters, in a nurse's uniform (like his mother' s), and kills Garp. Ã¢â¬ (Campbell, 1998, p.75)The wrestling room becomes a microcosm, a stage whereupon the great, often absurd, dramas of a life are enacted, but it is a place of competition, of struggle, and ultimately of death. The cycle which links sex and violence, death and birth, continues in Garp's stream of consciousness even as he lays dying, showing how individuality is subsumed under the larger, cosmic processes. Garp thinks: Ã¢â¬Å"Even if there is only death after death (after death), be grateful for small favorsÃ¢â¬â sometimes there is birth after sex, for example.And if you are very fortunate, sometimes there is sex after birth! Ã¢â¬ (Irving, 576). Irving's use of violence in Ã¢â¬Å"The World According to GarpÃ¢â¬ is extensive, varied, and intense. The modes of violence in the novel range from the comic to the harrowingly tragic and often involve two or modes simultaneously. Irving's purpose in depicting violence in this way is to establish violence and chaos as an integral part of the universe inhabited by humanity, whose insular and myopic visions partake of, but are incapable of fully comprehending the universal forces which shape their lives.
Capacity to be bound to the contract Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work produced by our Law Essay Writing Service . You can view samples of our professional work here . Capacity to be bound to the contract In the aspect of law, a contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more parties which contain elements of a valid legal agreement which is enforceable by law. An agreement is said to be reached when an offer offered by the offeree has been accept by the acceptor as an acceptance. These parties must have the capacity to be bound to the contract and the contract must not be insignificant, vague, unfeasible, or against the law. In daily life, most contracts can be and are made orally, such as purchasing a can drink or stationeries. Any oral agreement between two parties can form a legal binding contract as long as the good or service provided is legal. However, some contracts require material evidence, written documents for example purchasing a house as sometimes written contracts are required by either the parties, or by statutory law within various jurisdictions. When disputes arise among parties of the contract, the courts will have t o decide the judgment based on wheatear to place emphasis on intention of parties to the contract or other policy of considerations. 2.0 Intention to Create Legal Relations 2.1 Definition The Law recognizes that often the parties do not intend to create a legally binding contract. The law therefore says that there must be an intention to create legal relations and make a distinction between social and domestic agreement (where the assumption is that there is no intention to create legal relations) and commercial and business agreements (where the law assumes that the parties intend the agreement to be legally binding). 2.2 Social and Domestic Agreements 2.2.1 Agreements treated as not legally binding The cases suggest that agreements within families will generally be treated as not legally binding. For example, in Jones V Padavattan (1969), Mrs. Jones offered a monthly allowance to her daughter if she would give up her job in the USA and come to England and study to become a barrist er. Because of accommodation problems, Mrs. Jones bought a house in London, where the daughter lived and received rents from other tenants. They later quarreled and the mother sought repossession of the house. The courts decided that there was no intention to create legal relations and that all the arrangements were just part of ordinary family life. Therefore, the mother was not liable on the maintenance agreement and could also claim the house. In Balfour V Balfour (1919), the issue was the promise made by a husband to pay his wife allowance while he was abroad. He failed to keep up the payments when the marriage broke down. The wife sued but it was held that arrangements between husband and wives are not contracts because the parties do not intend them to be legally binding. The court also decided that she had given no consideration for the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s promise. 2.2.2 Agreements treated as legally binding In the case of Merritt V Merritt (1970), the husband had already left h is wife and they met to make arrangements for the future. The husband agreed to pay 40 pounds per month maintenance, out of which the wife would pay the mortgage. When the mortgage was paid off he would transfer the house from joint names to the wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s name. He wrote this down and signed the paper, but later refused to transfer the house. The court was held that when the agreement was made, the husband and wife were no longer living together; therefore they must have intended the agreement to be binging and their intention to base their future actions on the agreement was evidenced by the writing. The husband had to transfer the house to the wife.
Friday, September 13, 2019
Is cooperation possible under conditions of International Anarchy discuss in light of realist and pluralist approaches to international relations - Essay Example According to the principle of realists' movement, everything that need not be regulated within the general framework should be left to decide for subordinate groups and, in turn, to individuals to guarantee them a maximum amount of freedom. Proponents of pluralism argue that this negotiation process is the best way to achieve the common good: since everyone can participate in power and decision-making and can claim part of the ownership of the results of exercising power "Black, Bob (1997). Anarchy after Leftism." There can also be widespread participation and a greater feeling of commitment from society members, and therefore better outcomes. By contrast, few members make an authoritarian or oligarchic society, where power is concentrated and decisions. This School of thought holds that while the international system is anarchical, order can be promoted through diplomacy, international law and society. This school thus gives credence to establishing intergovernmental organizations s uch as the United Nations. The idea of international cooperation despite the unpredictable elements of anarchy can be viewed in the existence of the United Nations. ... d Social Council, ECOSOC assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development "Basic Facts About The United Nations", By United Nations (2004) ISBN 9211009367." Since 1998, it directs to make decision of the key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Their function includes information gathering, advising member nations, and making recommendations. International relations, in general focus the foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system, including the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and multinational corporations (MNCs). It seeks to analyze as well as formulate the foreign policy of particular states. International Relation draws upon such diverse fields as economics, history, law, philosophy, geography, sociology, anthropology, psychology, and cultural studies. It involves a diverse range of issues, from glob alization and its impacts on societies and state sovereignty to ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, nationalism, economic development, terrorism, organized crime, human security, and human rights. REALISM AS THE VEHICLE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIONS Realism chiefly denies that states seek to cooperate. Early realists such as E.H. Carr, Daniel Bernhard and Hans Morgenthau argued that states are self-interested, power-seeking rational actors, who seek to maximize their security and chances of survival. Realists previewed World War II as the vindication of their theory. They advocate that the current international system sustain by growing interdependence; the mutual responsibility and dependency on others. Globalization, in particular plays vital role with international